2019 NFPA 77 Recommended Practice - Current Edition
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  • Description

    Mitigate static electricity hazards. Help prevent ignition of flammable vapors, dust, and particulates by grounding and bonding according to the best practices in NFPA 77.

    A buildup of static electricity can be a considerable hazard -- it can discharge in air and ignite flammable vapors and dust. NFPA 77, Recommended Practice on Static Electricity provides important information on evaluating and controlling static electric hazards to help protect those working where these hazards can be present.

    NFPA 77 offers guidance on how to:

    • Eliminate static electric charges by bonding and grounding.
    • Manage static electricity where ignitable dusts or vapors are present.
    • Manage the flow rates and flow velocities of liquids when they are transferred.

    This recommended practice covers industries as diverse as chemical processing, petroleum refining, printing, and calendaring. It includes answers to questions about properly bonding and grounding a container, and how to determine whether a static electricity hazard poses a risk.

    The 2019 edition of NFPA 77 is up-to-date with referenced documents and the latest safety knowledge including:

    • Updates to reference documents, Chapter 2, and Annex I reflect current editions.
    • Changes to the definitions for combustible dust and grounding reflect the use of the terms specific to NFPA 77.
    • Changes to the characterization of low, medium, and high resistivity powders in Chapter 15 reflect generally accepted international standards.

    Grounding and bonding with NFPA 77 as a guide is essential to safety in many industrial environments. (Print, 78 pp., 2019)

     

    Interested in other editions of NFPA 77? Use the drop down menu above to select the edition year you need.

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  • Table of Contents (2019 Current Edition)

    NFPA® 77 Recommended Practice on Static Electricity, 2019 Edition

    Chapter 1 Administration
    1.1 Scope.
    1.2 Purpose.
    1.3 Application. (Reserved)
    1.4 Equivalency.
    1.5 Symbols, Units, and Formulas.
    Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
    2.1 General.
    2.2 NFPA Publications.
    2.3 Other Publications.
    2.4 References for Extracts in Recommendations Sections.
    Chapter 3 Definitions
    3.1 General.
    3.2 NFPA Official Definitions.
    3.3 General Definitions.
    Chapter 4 Units and Symbols of Measure
    4.1 Units. (Reserved)
    4.2 Symbols.
    Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Static Electricity
    5.1 General.
    5.2 Separation of Charge by Contact of Materials.
    5.3 Charging by Induction.
    5.4 Accumulation and Dissipation of Charge.
    5.5 Discharge of Static Electricity and Ignition Mechanisms.
    Chapter 6 Evaluating Static Electricity Hazards
    6.1 General.
    6.2 Measuring a Static Electric Charge.
    6.3 Measuring the Charge on a Conductor.
    6.4 Measuring the Charge on a Nonconductor.
    6.5 General Practices.
    6.6 Measuring the Accumulation and Relaxation of Charge.
    6.7 Measuring the Resistivity of Materials.
    6.8 Assessment of Conduction Paths.
    6.9 Measuring Spark Discharge Energies.
    6.10 Measuring Ignition Energies.
    Chapter 7 Control of Static Electricity and Its Hazards by Process Modification and Grounding
    7.1 General.
    7.2 Control of Ignitible Mixtures in Equipment.
    7.3 Control of Generation of Static Electric Charge.
    7.4 Charge Dissipation.
    Chapter 8 Control of Static Electricity and Its Hazards by Static Eliminators and Personnel Factors
    8.1 Charge Neutralization by Ionization of Air.
    8.2 Control of Static Electric Charge on Personnel.
    8.3 Maintenance and Testing.
    8.4 Discomfort and Injury.
    Chapter 9 Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Their Vapors
    9.1 General.
    9.2 Combustion Characteristics of Liquids, Vapors, and Mists.
    9.3 Generation and Dissipation of Static Electric Charge in Liquids.
    Chapter 10 Fluid Flow in Piping, Hose, Tubing, and Filters
    10.1 Metal Piping Systems.
    10.2 Nonconductive Pipe and Lined Pipe.
    10.3 Flexible Hose and Tubing.
    10.4 Fill Pipes.
    10.5 Filtration.
    10.6 Suspended Material.
    10.7 Miscellaneous Line Restrictions.
    Chapter 11 Static Electricity Hazards of Liquids in Containers and Intermediate Bulk Containers
    11.1 Portable Tanks, Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs), and Non-Bulk Containers.
    11.2 Cleaning of Containers.
    Chapter 12 Static Electricity Hazards of Liquids in Bulk Storage Tanks and in Tank Vehicles
    12.1 Storage Tanks.
    12.2 Loading of Tank Vehicles.
    12.3 Vacuum Trucks.
    12.4 Railroad Tank Cars.
    12.5 Marine Vessel and Barge Cargo Tanks.
    Chapter 13 Static Electricity Hazards in Process Vessels
    13.1 General.
    13.2 Procedures for Transfer to Tanks.
    13.3 Agitation.
    13.4 Process Vessels with Nonconductive Linings.
    13.5 Adding Solids.
    13.6 Mixing Solids.
    13.7 Nonconductive Process Vessels.
    Chapter 14 Static Electricity Hazards of Operations in Process Vessels and Tanks
    14.1 General.
    14.2 Gauging and Sampling.
    14.3 Cleaning Vessels and Tanks.
    14.4 Vacuum Cleaning.
    14.5 Clean Gas Flows.
    14.6 Ancillary Operations. (Reserved)
    Chapter 15 Powders and Dusts
    15.1 General.
    15.2 Combustibility of Dust Clouds.
    15.3 Mechanisms of Static Electric Charging.
    15.4 Retention of Static Electric Charge.
    15.5 Discharges in Powder Operations.
    15.6 Discharges During Filling Operations.
    15.7 Pneumatic Transport Systems.
    15.8 Flexible Hose.
    15.9 Flexible Boots and Socks.
    15.10 Fabric Filters.
    15.11 Hybrid Mixtures.
    15.12 Manual Addition of Powders to Flammable Liquids.
    15.13 Bulk Storage.
    Chapter 16 Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) for Powders
    16.1 General.
    16.2 Types of Discharge.
    16.3 Granular Material.
    16.4 Conductive Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs).
    16.5 Nonconductive Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs).
    16.6 Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBCs).
    Chapter 17 Web and Sheet Processes
    17.1 General.
    17.2 Substrates.
    17.3 Inks and Coatings.
    17.4 Processes.
    17.5 Control of Static Electricity in Web Processes.
    Chapter 18 Miscellaneous Applications
    18.1 Spray Application Processes.
    18.2 Belts and Conveyors.
    18.3 Explosives.
    18.4 Cathode Ray Tube Video Display Terminals.
    18.5 Plastic Sheets and Wraps.
    Annex A Explanatory Material
    Annex B Physical Characteristics of Materials
    Annex C Additional Information on Flash Point
    Annex D Additional Information on Vapor Pressure
    Annex E Additional Information on Charge Relaxation
    Annex F Additional Information on Conductivity
    Annex G Recommended Means for Providing Bonding and Grounding
    Annex H Glossary of Terms
    Annex I Informational References
  • Prior Editions

    2014 Edition

    A buildup of static electricity can be a considerable hazard, as it can discharge through the air and ignite flammable vapors and dust. NFPA 77, Recommended Practice on Static Electricity provides important information on evaluating and controlling static electric hazards to help protect those working where these hazards might be present.

    NFPA 77 offers guidance on how to:

    • Eliminate static electric charges by bonding and grounding.
    • Manage static electricity where ignitable dusts or vapors are present.
    • Manage the flow rates and flow velocities of liquids when they are transferred.

    This Recommended Practice covers industries as diverse as chemical processing, petroleum refining, printing, and calendaring. It includes answers to questions about properly bonding and grounding a container, and how to determine whether a static electricity hazard poses a risk.

    NFPA 77 has been updated to reflect some important changes:

    • It has been completely reorganized by dividing some of the chapters into smaller, more cohesive units.
    • In Chapter 5, the descriptions of the mechanisms by which static electric charges are formed have been simplified.
    • The section on flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBCs) has been completely rewritten to comport with international standard IEC 61340-4-4, Standard Test Methods for Specific Applications -- Electrostatic Classification of Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers.
    • The section on static electric hazards in bulk storage tanks has been completely revised to incorporate international standard IEC 60079-32, Explosive Atmospheres -- Part 32.2: Electrostatic Hazards.

    To prevent ignition of flammable vapors, dust, and particulates, you'll need to get your hands on the gold standard of static electricity safety. Order NFPA 77 today. (Softbound, 67 pp., 2014)

     

    Interested in other editions of NFPA 77? Use the drop down menu above to select the edition year you need.

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