2022 NFPA 72 Code - Current Edition
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  • Description

    Expanded and updated for 2022, NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code®, reflects the latest technologies, applications, and research on the use and installation of fire alarm and emergency communications systems.

    Update to the newest benchmarks for fire alarm systems with requirements that reflect the needs and concerns of code users in the field today. The 2022 edition of NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, presents the most advanced provisions ever developed for the application, installation, location, performance, and inspection, testing, and maintenance (ITM) of fire alarm and emergency communications systems, including mass notification systems (MNS).

    This edition features important updates for designers, installers, and AHJs — from a tagging program to provide at-a-glance details on the condition of fire alarm and signaling systems to pathway survivability.

    In a major change to scope, NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, now addresses cybersecurity.

    Criteria and guidance on the protection of fire alarm and signaling systems against cyberattacks can now be found in Chapter 11, "Cybersecurity", and Annex J, "Guidelines for Cybersecurity".

    Other key changes address pathway survivability for transmitting system information during fire conditions.

    Previously, NFPA 72 defined four levels of survivability and establishes the required level of protection for each application. It now includes a fifth option to reduce the 2-hour-rated application criteria to 1-hour-rated application criteria. Chapter 24 outlines specific requirements for the use of 1-hour application.

    Other major updates in the 2022 edition of NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, include the following:

    • Remote access to fire alarm and signaling systems for resetting, silencing, or operation of emergency control functions
    • Use of remote access to perform diagnostics and update software from anywhere
    • Numerous changes to detector technologies and methods
    • A shift in the vocabulary and operation of detectors to provide greater resistance to false triggers
    • A green, yellow, and red color-coded tagging program to visually monitor the condition of fire alarm and signaling systems

    The 2022 edition of NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, is a must-have resource for everyone involved with fire alarm design, installation, inspection, and maintenance. To help ensure compliance with the most up-to-date guidelines in the field, order your copy from NFPA today. (Print, 432 pp., 2022)

    Interested in the 2016 edition of NFPA 72? Find it here.
    For the 2013 and prior editions of NFPA 72, find them here.

  • Table of Contents (2022 Current Edition)

    NFPA 72® National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, 2022 Edition

    Chapter 1 Administration
    1.1 Scope.
    1.2 Purpose.
    1.3 Application.
    1.4 Retroactivity.
    1.5 Equivalency.
    1.6 Units and Formulas.
    1.7 Code Adoption Requirements.
    Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
    2.1 General.
    2.2 NFPA Publications.
    2.3 Other Publications.
    2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections.
    Chapter 3 Definitions
    3.1 General.
    3.2 NFPA Official Definitions.
    3.3 General Definitions.
    Chapter 4 Reserved
    Chapter 5 Reserved
    Chapter 6 Reserved
    Chapter 7 Documentation
    7.1 Application.
    7.2 Minimum Required Documentation.
    7.3 Design (Layout) Documentation.
    7.4 Shop Drawings (Installation Documentation).
    7.5 Completion Documentation.
    7.6 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Documentation.
    7.7 Records, Record Retention, and Record Maintenance.
    7.8 Forms.
    Chapter 8 Reserved
    Chapter 9 Reserved
    Chapter 10 Fundamentals
    10.1 Application.
    10.2 Purpose.
    10.3 Equipment.
    10.4 Design and Installation.
    10.5 Personnel Qualifications.
    10.6 Power Supplies.
    10.7 Signal Priority.
    10.8 Detection and Signaling of Conditions.
    10.9 Responses.
    10.10 Distinctive Signals.
    10.11 Alarm Signals.
    10.12 Fire Alarm Notification Appliance Deactivation.
    10.13 Carbon Monoxide Notification Appliance Deactivation.
    10.14 Supervisory Signals.
    10.15 Trouble Signals.
    10.16 Emergency Control Function Status Indicators.
    10.17 Notification Appliance Circuits and Supervised Notification Appliance Control Circuits.
    10.18 Annunciation and Annunciation Zoning.
    10.19 Monitoring Integrity of In-Building Fire Emergency Voice/Alarm Communications Systems.
    10.20 Documentation and Notification.
    10.21 Impairments.
    10.22 Unwanted Alarms.
    Chapter 11 Cybersecurity
    11.1 Cybersecurity.
    Chapter 12 Circuits and Pathways
    12.1 Application.
    12.2 General.
    12.3 Pathway Class Designations.
    12.4 Pathway Survivability.
    12.5 Shared Pathway Designations.
    12.6 Monitoring Integrity and Circuit Performance of Installation Conductors and Other Signaling Channels.
    12.7 Nomenclature.
    Chapter 13 Reserved
    Chapter 14 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    14.1 Application.
    14.2 General.
    14.3 Inspection.
    14.4 Testing.
    14.5 Maintenance.
    14.6 Records.
    Chapter 15 Reserved
    Chapter 16 Reserved
    Chapter 17 Initiating Devices
    17.1 Application.
    17.2 Purpose.
    17.3 Performance-Based Design.
    17.4 General Requirements.
    17.5 Requirements for Smoke and Heat Detectors.
    17.6 Heat-Sensing Fire Detectors.
    17.7 Smoke-Sensing Fire Detectors.
    17.8 Radiant Energy–Sensing Fire Detectors.
    17.9 Combination, Multi-Criteria, and Multi-Sensor Detectors.
    17.10 Gas Detection.
    17.11 Other Fire Detectors.
    17.12 Carbon Monoxide Detectors.
    17.13 Sprinkler Waterflow Alarm-Initiating Devices.
    17.14 Detection of Operation of Other Automatic Extinguishing Systems.
    17.15 Manually Actuated Alarm-Initiating Devices.
    17.16 Fire Extinguisher Electronic Monitoring Device.
    17.17 Supervisory Signal–Initiating Devices.
    Chapter 18 Notification Appliances
    18.1 Application.
    18.2 Purpose.
    18.3 General.
    18.4 Audible Characteristics.
    18.5 Visual Characteristics — Public Mode.
    18.6 Visual Characteristics — Private Mode.
    18.7 Supplementary Visual Signaling Method.
    18.8 Textual Audible Appliances.
    18.9 Textual and Graphical Visual Appliances.
    18.10 Tactile Appliances.
    Chapter 19 Reserved
    Chapter 20 Reserved
    Chapter 21 Emergency Control Function Interfaces
    21.1 Application.
    21.2 General.
    21.3 Elevator Phase I Emergency Recall Operation.
    21.4 Elevator Power Shutdown.
    21.5 Fire Service Access Elevators.
    21.6 Occupant Evacuation Elevators (OEE).
    21.7 Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Systems.
    21.8 High Volume Low Speed (HVLS) Fans.
    21.9 Door and Shutter Release.
    21.10 Electrically Locked Doors.
    21.11 Exit Marking Audible Notification Systems.
    Chapter 22 Reserved
    Chapter 23 Protected Premises Alarm and Signaling Systems
    23.1 Application.
    23.2 General.
    23.3 System Features.
    23.4 System Performance and Integrity.
    23.5 Performance of Initiating Device Circuits (IDCs).
    23.6 Performance of Signaling Line Circuits (SLCs).
    23.7 Performance of Notification Appliance Circuits (NACs).
    23.8 System Requirements.
    23.9 In-Building Emergency Voice/Alarm Communications.
    23.10 Fire Alarm Systems Using Tone.
    23.11 Suppression System Actuation.
    23.12 Off-Premises Signals.
    23.13 Guard’s Tour Supervisory Service.
    23.14 Suppressed (Exception Reporting) Signal System.
    23.15 Protected Premises Emergency Control Functions.
    23.16 Special Requirements for Low-Power Radio (Wireless) Systems.
    Chapter 24 Emergency Communications Systems (ECS)
    24.1 Application.
    24.2 Purpose.
    24.3 General.
    24.4 In-Building Fire Emergency Voice/Alarm Communications Systems (EVACS).
    24.5 In-Building Mass Notification Systems.
    24.6 Wide-Area Mass Notification Systems.
    24.7 Distributed Recipient Mass Notification Systems (DRMNS).
    24.8 Two-Way, In-Building Wired Emergency Services Communications Systems.
    24.9 Two-Way Radio Communications Enhancement Systems.
    24.10 Two-Way Emergency Communications Systems for Rescue Assistance.
    24.11 Information, Command, and Control.
    24.12 Performance-Based Design of Mass Notification Systems.
    24.13 Documentation for Emergency Communications Systems.
    Chapter 25 Reserved
    Chapter 26 Supervising Station Alarm Systems
    26.1 Application.
    26.2 General.
    26.3 Central Station Service Alarm Systems.
    26.4 Proprietary Supervising Station Alarm Systems.
    26.5 Remote Supervising Station Alarm Systems.
    26.6 Communications Methods for Supervising Station Alarm Systems.
    Chapter 27 Public Emergency Alarm Reporting Systems
    27.1 Application.
    27.2 General.
    27.3 Management and Maintenance.
    27.4 Communications Methods.
    27.5 Alarm Processing Equipment.
    27.6 Alarm Boxes.
    27.7 Public Cable Plant.
    27.8 Emergency Communications Systems (ECS).
    Chapter 28 Reserved
    Chapter 29 Single- and Multiple-Station Alarms and Household Signaling Systems
    29.1 Application.
    29.2 Purpose.
    29.3 Basic Requirements.
    29.4 Remote Annunciation.
    29.5 Notification.
    29.6 Assumptions.
    29.7 Carbon Monoxide Detection.
    29.8 Detection and Notification.
    29.9 Power Supplies.
    29.10 Equipment Performance.
    29.11 Installation.
    29.12 Optional Functions.
    29.13 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance.
    29.14 Markings and Instructions.
    Annex A Explanatory Material
    Annex B Engineering Guide for Automatic Fire Detector Spacing
    Annex C System Performance and Design Guide
    Annex D Speech Intelligibility
    Annex E Sample Ordinance Adopting NFPA 72
    Annex F Wiring Diagrams and Guide for Testing Fire Alarm Circuits
    Annex G Guidelines for Emergency Communication Strategies for Buildings and Campuses
    Annex H Carbon Monoxide
    Annex I Color-Coded Tagging Program
    Annex J Guidelines for Cybersecurity
    Annex K Informational References
  • 2019 Edition

    2019 Edition

    Expanded and updated, NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code® reflects the latest technologies, applications, and research.

    Update to the new benchmark for fire alarm systems, with requirements that reflect code user needs and concerns in the field today. The 2019 edition of NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code presents the most advanced provisions ever developed for the application, installation, location, performance, and inspection, testing, and maintenance of fire alarm and emergency communications systems -- including Mass Notification Systems (MNS).

    This edition features important updates for designers, installers, and AHJs—from added testing requirements for Energy Storage Systems (ESS), to new requirements for HVLS fans and air-sampling smoke detectors.

    In a major change to scope, NFPA 72 now addresses carbon monoxide protection.

    Material previously in NFPA 720, Standard for the Installation of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detection and Warning Equipment is relocated into the 2019 edition of NFPA 72. Critical requirements are incorporated into:

    • Chapter 17 for carbon monoxide detectors
    • Chapter 14 for installation, testing, and maintenance
    • Chapter 29 for carbon monoxide alarms -- with a significant amount of additional information
    • New Annex H

    Other key changes address occupant evacuation, areas of refuge, and VRLA batteries:

    • Major revisions to the requirements for fire service access elevators and occupant evacuation elevators (OEE) coordinate with changes made in ASME A17.1/CSA B44. Annex text is added for clarification.
    • Extensively revised requirements for occupant evacuation operation (OEO) coordinate with the new best practices and field research.
    • In addition to revised requirements for area of refuge (area of rescue assistance), Chapter 24 now includes requirements for stairway communications systems, elevator landing communications systems, and occupant evacuation elevator lobby communications systems.
    • Chapter 14, Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance now incorporates valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries.
    • New and updated definitions bring NFPA 72 up-to-date with current technologies. For example, the terms strobe, light, and visible are changed to visual notification appliance, recognizing use of LED products that can be used for fire alarm.

    The 2019 edition of NFPA 72 is a must-have resource for everyone involved with fire alarm design, installation, inspection, and maintenance. Order direct from NFPA®, the Code source. (Print, 369 pp., 2019)

    Interested in the 2016 edition of NFPA 72? Find it here.
    For editions prior to 2016, find them here.

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    NFPA codes and standards both provide requirements for achieving outcomes. Handbooks take a deeper dive, providing the full text of a code or standard as well as expert commentary and features such as graphics, decision trees, testing procedures, case studies, sample forms and checklists, and other helpful aids to give a better understanding of the reasoning behind the requirements and how to apply them.


    • A code or standard is a framework—a set of rules to follow with a goal to achieve a certain result
    • A handbook is a connector—linking requirements to application by helping you understand the reasoning behind a code or standard

    The simplest way to think about it is that codes and standards list the technical requirements while handbooks explain those requirements to clarify how to apply them.

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  • eForms Table of Contents (2019)

    2019 eForms Table of Contents

    • System Record of Completion
    • Emergency Communications Systems Supplementary Record of Completion
    • Power Systems Supplementary Record of Completion
    • Noti?cation Appliance Power Panel Supplementary Record of Completion
    • Interconnected Systems Supplementary Record of Completion
    • Deviations from Adopted Codes and Standards Supplementary Record of Completion
    • System Record of Inspection and Testing
    • Noti?cation Appliance Supplementary Record of Inspection and Testing
    • Initiating Device Supplementary Record of Inspection and Testing
    • Mass Noti?cation System Supplementary Record of Inspection and Testing
    • Emergency Communications Systems Supplementary Record of Inspection and Testing
    • Interface Component Supplementary Record of Inspection and Testing
    • Installation and Inspection Form Single- and Multiple-Station Alarms and Household Fire Alarm Systems
    • Risk Analysis Checklist
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