2023 NFPA 70, NEC Handbook - Current Edition
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  • Description

    Edited by the electrical experts at NFPA®.

    Access the knowledge and expertise to help understand and implement the most current electrical installation requirements.

    The significantly revised NFPA 70®, National Electrical Code® (NEC®), 2023 edition, is the premier standard for safe electrical installations in residential, commercial, and industrial settings. It's critical that personnel who apply and enforce the NEC stay up to date with the code and are ready for the challenges of the modern electrical landscape.

    The NFPA 70, National Electrical Code Handbook is the most practical and powerful resource today for electrical design and installation. You get the complete text of the latest NEC plus a range of features providing insights and guidance on its application.

    Only the NEC handbook, 2023 edition, offers:

    • Integrated expert commentary positioned in line with NEC text
    • Summary of Technical Changes table demonstrating where and why code changes occurred between editions
    • A cross-reference feature to help you quickly find related information in other articles or sections
    • Hundreds of full-color photos and illustrations, including schematics, floor plans, and cross-sectional graphics

    Fast-track getting up to speed with major changes to the code with the NEC handbook.

    The NEC 2023 edition is completely reorganized with renumbered articles for ease of use and expanded content to account for emerging practices, trends, and technologies. All of the NEC definitions are now consolidated in Article 100 with searchable terms to assist in finding important code content.

    Key revisions to the code include:

    • New general criteria for all electrical systems, including a rule requiring level/flat surfaces within the working space for electrical equipment and expanded provisions covering the use and approval of reconditioned electrical equipment
    • Changes impacting residential electrical systems, ranging from expanded ground-fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) requirements for specific appliances and new requirements for optional installation of receptacle outlets serving island and peninsular countertops and work surfaces
    • Introduction of commercial/industrial electrical systems requirements for GFCI for special appliances, the use of replacement panelboards, and expansion of arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) protection provisions
    • Increased focus on alternative energy systems and emergency management, including revised requirements on the interconnection of distributed on-site power supplies with electric utility supplies, edits to Article 480 to delineate storage battery systems from energy storage systems (ESS), and new rules on commissioning of ESS
    • New articles and requirements for never before covered systems and equipment such as Class 4 fault-managed circuits, hazardous locations within commercial and industrial cannabis production facilities, equipotential bonding in and around areas with splash pads, insulated bus pipe/tubular covered conductors systems, and more

    Ensure you and your team have the essential companion resource to the code with the 2023 edition of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code Handbook. (Hardbound, 1,404 pages, 2023)

  • Table of Contents (2020 Previous Edition)







    Richard G. Biermann Award

    About the Editors

    Summary of Technical Changes


    Article 90 Introduction


    Chapter 1 General

    Article 100 Definitions

    Article 110 Requirements for Electrical Installations


    Chapter 2 Wiring and Protection

    Article 200 Use and Identification of Grounded

    Article 210 Branch Circuits

    Article 215 Feeders

    Article 220 Branch-Circuit, Feeder, and Service Load Calculations

    Article 225 Outside Branch Circuits and Feeders

    Article 230 Services

    Article 240 Overcurrent Protection

    Article 242 Overvoltage Protection

    Article 250 Grounding and Bonding


    Chapter 3 Wiring Methods and Materials

    Article 300 General Requirements for Wiring Methods and Materials

    Article 310 Conductors for General Wiring

    Article 311 Medium Voltage Conductors and Cable

    Article 312 Cabinets, Cutout Boxes, and Meter Socket Enclosures

    Article 314 Outlet, Device, Pull, and Junction Boxes; Conduit Bodies; Fittings; and Handhole Enclosures

    Article 320 Armored Cable: Type AC

    Article 322 Flat Cable Assemblies: Type FC

    Article 324 Flat Conductor Cable: Type FCC

    Article 326 Integrated Gas Spacer Cable: Type IGS

    Article 330 Metal-Clad Cable: Type MC

    Article 332 Mineral-Insulated, Metal-Sheathed Cable: Type MI

    Article 334 Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cable: Types NM and NMC

    Article 336 Power and Control Tray Cable: Type TC

    Article 337 Type P Cable

    Article 338 Service-Entrance Cable: Types SE and USE

    Article 340 Underground Feeder and Branch-Circuit

    Article 342 Intermediate Metal Conduit: Type IMC

    Article 344 Rigid Metal Conduit: Type RMC

    Article 348 Flexible Metal Conduit: Type FMC

    Article 350 Liquidtight Flexible Metal Conduit: Type LFMC

    Article 352 Rigid Polyvinyl Chloride Conduit: Type PVC

    Article 353 High Density Polyethylene Conduit: Type

    Article 354 Nonmetallic Underground Conduit with Conductors: Type NUCC

    Article 355 Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Conduit: Type RTRC

    Article 356 Liquidtight Flexible Nonmetallic Conduit: Type LFNC

    Article 358 Electrical Metallic Tubing: Type EMT

    Article 360 Flexible Metallic Tubing: Type FMT

    Article 362 Electrical Nonmetallic Tubing: Type ENT

    Article 366 Auxiliary Gutters

    Article 368 Busways

    Article 370 Cablebus

    Article 372 Cellular Concrete Floor Raceways

    Article 374 Cellular Metal Floor Raceways

    Article 376 Metal Wireways

    Article 378 Nonmetallic Wireways

    Article 380 Multioutlet Assembly

    Article 382 Nonmetallic Extensions

    Article 384 Strut-Type Channel Raceway

    Article 386 Surface Metal Raceways

    Article 388 Surface Nonmetallic Raceways

    Article 390 Underfloor Raceways

    Article 392 Cable Trays

    Article 393 Low-Voltage Suspended Ceiling Power Distribution Systems

    Article 394 Concealed Knob-and-Tube Wiring

    Article 396 Messenger-Supported Wiring

    Article 398 Open Wiring on Insulators

    Article 399 Outdoor Overhead Conductors over 1000 Volts


    Chapter 4 Equipment for General Use

    Article 400 Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables

    Article 402 Fixture Wires

    Article 404 Switches

    Article 406 Receptacles, Cord Connectors, and Attachment Plugs (Caps)

    Article 408 Switchboards, Switchgear, and Panelboards

    Article 409 Industrial Control Panels

    Article 410 Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps

    Article 411 Low-Voltage Lighting

    Article 422 Appliances

    Article 424 Fixed Electric Space-Heating Equipment

    Article 425 Fixed Resistance and Electrode Industrial Process Heating Equipment

    Article 426 Fixed Outdoor Electric Deicing and Snow-Melting Equipment

    Article 427 Fixed Electric Heating Equipment for Pipelines and Vessels

    Article 430 Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers

    Article 440 Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Equipment

    Article 445 Generators

    Article 450 Transformers and Transformer Vaults (Including Secondary Ties)

    Article 455 Phase Converters

    Article 460 Capacitors

    Article 470 Resistors and Reactors

    Article 480 Storage Batteries

    Article 490 Equipment Over 1000 Volts, Nominal


    Chapter 5 Special Occupancies

    Article 500 Hazardous (Classified) Locations, Classes I, II, and III, Divisions 1 and 2

    Article 501 Class I Locations

    Article 502 Class II Locations

    Article 503 Class III Locations

    Article 504 Intrinsically Safe Systems

    Article 505 Zone 0, 1, and 2 Locations

    Article 506 Zone 20, 21, and 22 Locations for Combustible Dusts or Ignitible Fibers/Flyings

    Article 510 Hazardous (Classified) Locations — Specific

    Article 511 Commercial Garages, Repair and Storage

    Article 513 Aircraft Hangars

    Article 514 Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities

    Article 515 Bulk Storage Plants

    Article 516 Spray Application, Dipping, Coating, and Printing Processes Using Flammable or Combustible Materials

    Article 517 Health Care Facilities

    Article 518 Assembly Occupancies

    Article 520 Theaters, Audience Areas of Motion Picture and Television Studios, Performance Areas, and Similar Locations

    Article 522 Control Systems for Permanent Amusement Attractions

    Article 525 Carnivals, Circuses, Fairs, and Similar Events

    Article 530 Motion Picture and Television Studios and Similar Locations

    Article 540 Motion Picture Projection Rooms

    Article 545 Manufactured Buildings and Relocatable Structures

    Article 547 Agricultural Buildings

    Article 550 Mobile Homes, Manufactured Homes, and Mobile Home Parks

    Article 551 Recreational Vehicles and Recreational Vehicle Parks

    Article 552 Park Trailers

    Article 555 Marinas, Boatyards, Floating Buildings, and Commercial and Noncommercial Docking Facilities

    Article 590 Temporary Installations


    Chapter 6 Special Equipment

    Article 600 Electric Signs and Outline Lighting

    Article 604 Manufactured Wiring Systems

    Article 605 Office Furnishings

    Article 610 Cranes and Hoists

    Article 620 Elevators, Dumbwaiters, Escalators, Moving Walks, Platform Lifts, and Stairway Chairlifts

    Article 625 Electric Vehicle Power Transfer System

    Article 626 Electrified Truck Parking Spaces

    Article 630 Electric Welders

    Article 640 Audio Signal Processing, Amplification, and Reproduction Equipment

    Article 645 Information Technology Equipment

    Article 646 Modular Data Centers

    Article 647 Sensitive Electronic Equipment

    Article 650 Pipe Organs

    Article 660 X-Ray Equipment

    Article 665 Induction and Dielectric Heating Equipment

    Article 668 Electrolytic Cells

    Article 669 Electroplating

    Article 670 Industrial Machinery

    Article 675 Electrically Driven or Controlled Irrigation Machines

    Article 680 Swimming Pools, Fountains, and Similar Installations

    Article 682 Natural and Artificially Made Bodies of Water

    Article 685 Integrated Electrical Systems

    Article 690 Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

    Article 691 Large-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) Electric Supply Stations

    Article 692 Fuel Cell Systems

    Article 694 Wind Electric Systems

    Article 695 Fire Pumps


    Chapter 7 Special Conditions

    Article 700 Emergency Systems

    Article 701 Legally Required Standby Systems

    Article 702 Optional Standby Systems

    Article 705 Interconnected Electric Power Production Sources

    Article 706 Energy Storage Systems

    Article 708 Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS)

    Article 710 Stand-Alone Systems

    Article 712 Direct Current Microgrids

    Article 720 Circuits and Equipment Operating at Less Than 50 Volts

    Article 725 Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 Remote-Control, Signaling, and Power-Limited Circuits

    Article 727 Instrumentation Tray Cable: Type ITC

    Article 728 Fire-Resistive Cable Systems

    Article 750 Energy Management Systems

    Article 760 Fire Alarm Systems

    Article 770 Optical Fiber Cables


    Chapter 8 Communications Systems

    Article 800 General Requirements for Communications Systems

    Article 805 Communications Circuits

    Article 810 Radio and Television Equipment

    Article 820 Community Antenna Television and Radio Distribution Systems

    Article 830 Network-Powered Broadband Communications Systems

    Article 840 Premises-Powered Broadband Communications Systems


    Chapter 9 Tables

    Table 1 Percent of Cross Section of Conduit and Tubing for Conductors and Cables

    Table 2 Radius of Conduit and Tubing Bends

    Table 4 Dimensions and Percent Area of Conduit and Tubing (Areas of Conduit or Tubing for the Combinations of Wires Permitted in Table 1, Chapter 9)

    Table 5 Dimensions of Insulated Conductors and Fixture Wires

    Table 5A Compact Copper and Aluminum Building Wire Nominal Dimensions** and Areas

    Table 8 Conductor Properties

    Table 9 Alternating-Current Resistance and Reactance for 600-Volt Cables, 3-Phase, 60 Hz, 75°C (167°F) — Three Single Conductors in Conduit

    Table 10 Conductor Stranding

    Table 11(A) Class 2 and Class 3 Alternating-Current Power Source Limitations

    Table 11(B) Class 2 and Class 3 Direct-Current Power Source Limitations

    Table 12(A) PLFA Alternating-Current Power Source Limitations

    Table 12(B) PLFA Direct-Current Power Source Limitations



    Informative Annex A: Product Safety Standards

    Informative Annex B: Application Information for Ampacity Calculation

    Informative Annex C: Conduit, Tubing, and Cable Tray Fill Tables for Conductors and Fixture Wires of the Same Size

    Informative Annex D: Examples

    Informative Annex E: Types of Construction

    Informative Annex F: Availability and Reliability for Critical Operations Power Systems; and Development and Implementation of Functional Performance Tests (FPTs) for Critical Operations Power Systems

    Informative Annex G: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)

    Informative Annex H: Administration and Enforcement

    Informative Annex I: Recommended Tightening Torque Tables from UL Standard 486A-486B

    Informative Annex J: ADA Standards for Accessible Design



  • Sample Pages (2020)

    Important information about NFPA codes and standards available

    NFPA® Handbooks are your 'Roadmap to the Codes' with insights and graphics that answer code questions. View these sample pages for a preview of the valuable information you'll access including complete code or standard text; explanatory commentary highlighted in a second color; hundreds of full-color photos, charts, tables and illustrations to clarify concepts; and much more.

    Preview the 2020 NFPA 70®: National Electrical Code® (NEC®) Handbook

  • Prior Editions

    2020 Edition

    Editor-in-Chief: Mark W. Earley

    Editors: Christopher D. Coache, Mark Cloutier, Jeff Sargent, Erik Hohengasser, Gordon Frost, and Derek Vigstol

    Navigating the increasingly complex electrical industry requires a fundamental understanding of NFPA 70®, National Electrical Code® (NEC®), requirements and how to apply them more accurately. Revised and extensively updated, the full-color 2020 edition NEC handbook is a vital resource for electrical design and installation in residential, commercial, and industrial settings.

    This essential companion book to NFPA 70, NEC, includes the complete 2020 edition NEC text with new and updated commentary from the code experts and extensive visual learning aids that clarify concepts and improve insight of the code.

    The NEC handbook, 2020 edition, helps get you up to speed with the latest in electrical safety and compliance.

    Based on the 2020 NEC, the new NEC handbook reflects industry trends and code changes addressing electrical technologies that are transforming the field. You get detailed explanations on how to implement requirements along with the reasoning behind major changes that could affect your designs and installations.

    The NEC handbook provides a narrative interpretation featuring expert commentary and informative exhibits that help you increase code comprehension and explain NEC requirements to clients and others who might not have professional electrical training.

    Only the 2020 edition of the NEC handbook has:

    • The complete 2020 NEC text for instant and easy reference
    • Integrated commentary positioned in-line with NEC text
    • A new Summary of Technical Changes table that shows you where and why code changes occurred
    • A cross-reference feature to help you quickly find related information in other articles
    • 800 full-color photos, tables, and illustrations such as schematics, floor plans, and cross-sectional graphics
    • Ten Informative Annexes, including Informative Annex C, Conduit and Tubing Fill Tables, and Informative Annex D, Examples

    The NEC handbook is designed explicitly for electrical professionals.  The complete NFPA 70, NEC, index is also included for easy reference to the code information you require. The handbook's commentary text is colored blue to differentiate it from the code text.

    In the rapidly evolving electrical industry, the NEC handbook helps you be prepared for tomorrow's challenges, today!

    The inability to understand and apply the NEC can put lives and property in danger and result in failed inspections and significant liabilities. Get the resource utilized by electrical contractors, engineers, electricians, safety officials, inspectors, and architects throughout the US and around the globe to help ensure safe and compliant electrical work. Place an order for the 2020 edition of the NEC handbook today. (Hardbound, 1,388 pages, 2020)

    2017 Edition

    Editor-in-Chief: Mark W. Earley

    Editors: Christopher D. Coache, Mark Cloutier, Gil Moniz, and Derek Vigstol

    Rewritten and extensively updated, the full-color 2017 edition NEC® Handbook is the most practical and powerful resource for electrical design and installation today.

    Success in the electrical industry depends on your grasp of NFPA 70®, National Electrical Code® requirements and your ability to apply them correctly. Based on the 2017 NEC, the NEC Handbook clarifies concepts for a better understanding of the Code. It's a powerful communication tool that helps you explain the NEC to clients and others who might not have professional electrical training.

    The new NEC Handbook reflects industry trends and Code changes that impact residential, commercial, and industrial work.

    Stay informed about how the NEC addresses electrical technologies transforming the field. New and updated commentary written by the Code experts explains how to implement requirements and gives you the reasoning behind major changes that could affect your designs and installations.

    Only the 2017 edition of the NEC Handbook has:

    • The complete 2017 NEC text for instant and easy reference
    • Integrated commentary positioned in-line with NEC text
    • A new cross-reference feature to help you find related information in other Articles fast
    • 800 full-color photos, tables, and illustrations such as schematics, floor plans, and cross-sectional graphics
    • A list of contents at the beginning of each Article that provides the major sections within the Article
    • Ten Informative Annexes including Informative Annex C: Conduit and Tubing Fill Tables and Informative Annex D: Examples
    • A new Summary of Technical Changes table that shows you where and why changes occurred

    The NEC Handbook is specially designed for electrical professionals.

    As Code changes impact your work, the Handbook brings you up-to-speed with in-text highlighting that indicates where NEC requirements changed from the previous edition, and bullets that signal deletions. Commentary and examples are printed in blue. There's also a complete NFPA 70, NEC Code Index.

    In a fast-changing industry, the NEC Handbook has what you need for safe and compliant electrical work.

    If you or your employees don't understand the NEC, problems can escalate from a failed inspection to a major liability that jeopardizes lives and property. Order the 2017 edition of the NEC Handbook, the resource trusted by electrical contractors, engineers, electricians, safety officials, inspectors, and architects nationwide. (Hardbound, 1,367 pp., 2017)

    2014 Edition


    Editor-in-Chief: Mark W. Earley

    Editors: Christopher D. Coache, Mark Cloutier, and Gil Moniz

    The 2014 National Electrical Code® Handbook from NFPA® explains today's NEC® in full. There's nothing else like it!

    A one-stop source of National Electrical Code information, the 2014 NEC Handbook from NFPA does much more than bring you up-to-code -- it also explains the reasoning behind NFPA 70®: NEC concepts, provides real-world examples, and gives you the background behind Code revisions, so you can work with authority.

    Trust the only NEC Code reference that has it all:

    • Complete 2014 NEC text for convenient reference
    • Explanations from experts involved with NEC development
    • First-time commentary on four new articles that expand NEC coverage to address industry needs
    • Commentary on important changes involving AFCIs and GFCIs, electrical worker safety, and green energy systems
    • Full-color photos and visuals such as schematics, floor plans, flow charts, and cross-sectional graphics
    • Extracted data from other NFPA documents and UL White Book

    Written by experts who are at the center of the NEC development process.

    The 2014 NEC Handbook is loaded with essential information about Code application, from the experts who know the NEC best. Revised NEC text is highlighted in yellow to make Code changes stand out. Commentary and examples are printed in blue. Vertical rules alert you to new articles, figures, and tables; and bullets signal deletions.

    Insightful, comprehensive, and dependable, no other source compares with the 2014 NEC Handbook!

    Work with the authority trusted by electrical contractors, engineers, electricians, safety officials, inspectors, and architects nationwide. Order your 2014 NEC Handbook today from NFPA. (Hardbound, 1270 pp., 2014)


    Interested in other editions of the NEC Handbook? Use the drop down menu above to select the edition year you need.

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  • Also in NFPA 70: National Electrical Code (NEC)