2022 NFPA 484 Standard - Current Edition
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  • Description

    Apply NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals, to help ensure that you meet the most advanced fire and explosion safety requirements related to combustible metals and metal dusts.

    NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals, was developed in response to fires where fire suppression water was used inappropriately, often with disastrous results. The standard includes widely accepted safety requirements for any metal that meets its definition of a combustible metal, including alkali metals, aluminum, hafnium, magnesium, niobium, tantalum, titanium, and zirconium. NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals, addresses the production, processing, finishing, handling, storage, use, and recycling of all metals and alloys that are in a form capable of combustion or explosion.

    Make sure you understand and follow the requirements for proper dust collection, housekeeping, and identification of potential ignition sources.

    It's important to understand that fire and explosion hazards might be present due to operations involving the production, processing, finishing, handling, recycling, storage, and use of all metals and alloys that are in a form that is capable of combustion or explosion. Operations where metal or metal alloys are subjected to processing or finishing operations that can produce combustible powder or dust are also covered by this standard.

    Changes throughout the 2022 edition of NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals, can help you apply the standard correctly in different work environments.

    This edition of the standard has been reorganized so that the first nine chapters correlate with the topics covered in NFPA 652, Standard on the Fundamentals of Combustible Dust, as well as to organize the remaining chapters to ensure the first nine chapters do not conflict with other sections of the standard. Chapter 13, Additive Manufacturing, was also revised to address the following:

    • The growing utilization of metal powders in additive manufacturing
    • Dust hazard analysis
    • Location of emergency shutdown controls
    • Harvesting printed objects
    • Powder storage
    • Operator training

    Further updates for the 2022 edition of NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals, include the following:

    • A new requirement for the Kst value to be doubled for certain metals — unless their explosibility characteristics are determined in a 1 m3 or larger test vessel — has been added, in addition to annex material to help explain this requirement.
    • The requirements for fire detection for dry-type air-material separators have been revised to allow for the use of methods other than surface-mounted devices and to require that all filter locations (if present) be monitored.
    • Chapter 15, Legacy Metals, has been reorganized to consolidate the requirements that apply to all legacy metals.

    Everyone involved with facility fire safety or fire prevention and protection where combustible metals and combustible metal dusts are present needs to use the latest edition of NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals. Order your copy of the 2022 edition today. (Print, Approx. 158 pp., 2022)

  • Table of Contents (2022 Current Edition)

    NFPA® 484 Standard for Combustible Metals, 2022 Edition

    Chapter 1 Administration
    1.1 Scope.
    1.2 Purpose.
    1.3 Application.
    1.4 Conflicts.
    1.5 Retroactivity.
    1.6 Equivalency.
    1.7 Units and Formulas.
    Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
    2.1 General.
    2.2 NFPA Publications.
    2.3 Other Publications.
    2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections.
    Chapter 3 Definitions
    3.1 General.
    3.2 NFPA Official Definitions.
    3.3 General Definitions.
    Chapter 4 General Requirements
    4.1 General.
    4.2 Objectives.
    Chapter 5 Hazard Identification — Determination of the Combustibility or Explosibility of a Metal, Metal Powder, or Metal Dust
    5.1 Responsibility.
    5.2 Overview.
    5.3 Basic Material Characterization.
    5.4 Determination of Combustibility.
    5.5 Determination of Explosibility.
    5.6 Use of Test Data for Hazard Analysis.
    5.7 Determination of Flash-Fire Potential. (Reserved)
    5.8 Organometallic Materials. (Reserved)
    Chapter 6 Performance-Based Design Option
    6.1 General Requirements.
    6.2 Design Objectives.
    6.3 Performance Criteria.
    6.4 Design Scenarios.
    6.5 Evaluation of Proposed Design.
    6.6 Retained Prescriptive Requirements.
    Chapter 7 Hazard Analysis
    7.1 General Requirements.
    7.2 Dust Hazard Analysis (DHA).
    7.3 Molten Metal Hazard Analysis.
    7.4 Risk Evaluation.
    7.5 Dust Explosion and Flash-Fire Hazard Areas.
    Chapter 8 Management Systems
    8.1 Retroactivity.
    8.2 General.
    8.3 Operating Procedures and Practices.
    8.4 Housekeeping.
    8.5 Hot Work.
    8.6 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
    8.7 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance.
    8.8 Training and Hazard Awareness.
    8.9 Contractors.
    8.10 Emergency Planning and Response.
    8.11 Incident Investigation.
    8.12 Management of Change.
    8.13 Documentation Retention.
    8.14 Management Systems Review.
    8.15 Employee Participation.
    Chapter 9 Hazard Management: Mitigation and Prevention
    9.1 Inherently Safer Designs.
    9.2 Building Design.
    9.3 Equipment Design.
    9.4 Ignition Source Control.
    9.5 Pyrophoric Dusts. (Reserved)
    9.6 Dust Control.
    9.7 Explosion Prevention/Protection.
    9.8 Fire Protection.
    Chapter 10 Fire Prevention, Fire Protection, and Emergency Response
    10.1 Retroactivity.
    10.2 General.
    10.3 Operating Procedures and Practices.
    10.4 Fire Prevention.
    10.5 Fire Protection.
    10.6 Training and Hazard Awareness.
    10.7 Emergency Planning/Preparedness and Response.
    10.8 Emergency Response.
    10.9 Incident Investigation.
    Chapter 11 Housekeeping
    11.1 Retroactivity.
    11.2 Applicability.
    11.3 Housekeeping Plan.
    11.4 Cleanup Procedures for Fugitive Dust Accumulations.
    11.5 Cleanup of Spilled Dust, Fine or Powder.
    11.6 Vacuum Cleaning.
    11.7 Compressed Air Cleaning Requirements.
    11.8 Water-Cleaning Requirements.
    11.9 Cleaning Frequency.
    11.10 General Precautions.
    Chapter 12 Control of Ignition Sources
    12.1 Retroactivity.
    12.2 Hot Work.
    12.3 Control of Friction Hazards.
    12.4 Electrical Area Classification.
    12.5 Portable Electrical and Electronic Equipment.
    Chapter 13 Pneumatic Conveying, Dust Collection, and Centralized Vacuum Cleaning Systems
    13.1 Retroactivity.
    13.2 Dust Collection.
    13.3 Centralized Vacuum Cleaning System.
    13.4 Portable Vacuum Cleaners.
    13.5 Pneumatic Conveying of Powder.
    13.6 Powder Collection.
    Chapter 14 Nanometal Powders
    14.1 Retroactivity.
    14.2 General.
    14.3 Nanoparticle Production Processes.
    14.4 Equipment Design and Operation.
    14.5 Housekeeping.
    Chapter 15 Additive Manufacturing
    15.1 Retroactivity.
    15.2 General Requirements.
    15.3 Additive Manufacturing Equipment and Operations.
    15.4 Equipment and Object Cleaning.
    15.5 Training.
    15.6 Emergency Response.
    Chapter 16 Alkali Metals
    16.1 General Provisions.
    16.2 Facility Design Requirements.
    16.3 Primary Metal Production.
    16.4 Powder Production. (Reserved)
    16.5 End Users of Powder. (Reserved)
    16.6 Processing and Handling.
    16.7 Machining, Fabrication, Finishing, and Media Blasting.
    16.8 Storage and Handling.
    16.9 Fire and Explosion Protection.
    16.10 Other. (Reserved)
    Chapter 17 Legacy Metals
    17.1 General.
    17.2 Facility Design Requirements.
    17.3 Primary Metal Production (Smelting).
    17.4 Powder Production.
    17.5 End Users of Powder.
    17.6 Processing and Handling.
    17.7 Machining, Fabrication, Finishing, and Media Blasting.
    17.8 Storage and Handling.
    17.9 Fire and Explosion Prevention.
    Chapter 18 Other Metals
    18.1 General Provisions.
    18.2 Facility Design Requirements.
    18.3 Primary Metal Production.
    18.4 Powder Production.
    18.5 End Users of Powder.
    18.6 Processing.
    18.7 Machining, Fabrication, Finishing, and Media Blasting.
    18.8 Storage and Handling.
    18.9 Fire and Explosion Prevention.
    18.10 Other. (Reserved)
    Chapter 19 Recycling and Waste Management Facilities
    19.1 General Provisions.
    19.2 Recycling and Waste Management of Combustible Metal — Collection, Storage, and Handling of Fines Generated During Scrap Receiving, Storage, Recycling, and Waste Treatment.
    19.3 Storage of Combustible Metals for Recycling and Waste Management.
    19.4 Sample Identification and Collection for Metals in a Combustible Form.
    19.5 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
    19.6 Reactivity.
    19.7 Management of Change.
    19.8 Facility Design Requirements.
    19.9 Emergency Preparedness.
    19.10 Processing.
    19.11 Fire and Explosion Prevention.
    Annex A Explanatory Material
    Annex B Electrically Conductive Floors
    Annex C Supplementary Information on Magnesium
    Annex D Design for Dust Concentration Control in Ductwork
    Annex E Supplementary Information on Tantalum
    Annex F Supplementary Information on Titanium
    Annex G Supplementary Information on Zirconium
    Annex H Extinguishing Agents That Should Not Be Used on Lithium Fires
    Annex I Testing for Detailed Characterization of Explosive Behavior of Materials
    Annex J Informational References
  • Prior Editions

    2019 Edition

    Apply NFPA 484 for the most advanced fire and explosion safety around all types of combustible metals and metal dusts.

    Completely reorganized to align with NFPA 652, Standard on the Fundamentals of Combustible Dust, NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals presents widely accepted safety requirements for any metal that meets the definition of a combustible metal in NFPA 484 -- including alkali metals, aluminum, hafnium, magnesium, niobium, tantalum, titanium, and zirconium. NFPA 484 addresses the production, processing, finishing, handling, storage, use, and recycling of all metals and alloys that are in a form capable of combustion or explosion.

    Make sure you understand and follow proper dust capture or collection, housekeeping, and identification of potential ignition sources.

    NFPA 484 was developed in response to fires where fire suppression water was used inappropriately, often with disastrous results. The reorganized 2019 edition has added material in Chapter 1 that clarifies the application of the standard to mixtures of metals and other combustible nonmetal dusts, and updated definitions in Chapter 3 that correlate with NFPA 652. It’s important to understand that fire and explosion hazards are potentially present from operations involving production, processing, finishing, handling, recycling, storage, and use of all metals and alloys that are in a form that is capable of combustion or explosion. In addition, operations where metal or metal alloys are subjected to processing or finishing operations can produce combustible powder or dust are covered by this standard.

    Changes throughout this 2019 edition help you apply requirements correctly in different work environments:

    • New Chapter 4, General, includes material on objectives and compliance options, Management of Change, and PPE.
    • New Chapter 7 addresses Dust Hazard Analysis.
    • Updated Chapter 8 strengthens the provisions regarding static electricity. Revised requirements for electrical area classification spell out differences with NFPA 70®, National Electrical Code®, and that the NEC® zone classification system is not to be used for metal dusts.
    • Chapter 11, Powder and Dust Collection and Centralized Vacuum Systems, provides greater clarity on a complex topic.
    • New Chapter 12, Nanometals, and new Chapter 13, Additive Manufacturing, reflect emerging technologies and issues in the metals industry.
    • Chapter 15, Legacy Metals, consolidates the common requirements for aluminum, magnesium, niobium, tantalum, titanium, zirconium, and hafnium into a single location. Material that is specific to one of these metals remains in the metal-specific chapters.

    Everyone involved with facility fire safety or fire prevention and protection where combustible metals and combustible metal dusts are located needs the latest edition of NFPA 484. (Print, 158 pp., 2019)


    2015 Edition

    Look to NFPA 484 for advanced fire and explosion safety around all types of combustible metals and metal dusts.

    Reflecting the latest research, testing, and fire experience, the 2015 edition of NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals presents widely accepted safety requirements for any metal that meets the definition of a combustible metal in NFPA 484 -- including alkali metals, aluminum, hafnium, magnesium, niobium, tantalum, titanium, and zirconium. NFPA 484 addresses the production, processing, finishing, handling, storage, use and recycling of all metals and alloys that are in a form capable of combustion or explosion.

    Make sure you know about proper dust capture or collection, housekeeping, and identification of potential ignition sources.

    Compliance with the latest edition of NFPA 484 is critical, as fire and explosion hazards are potentially present from operations involving production, processing, finishing, handling, recycling, storage, and use of all metals and alloys that are in a form that is capable of combustion or explosion. In addition, operations where metal or metal alloys are subjected to processing or finishing operations can produce combustible powder or dust are covered by this Standard.

    The 2015 NFPA 484 is updated and reorganized for easier referencing:

    • Common requirements for all metal types -- such as PPE, management of change, dust collection, ignition sources, and hazard analysis -- formerly in Chapters 11 through 18 -- have been moved into fundamental Chapters 4 through 9.
    • Chapter 4 has revised procedures concerning material characterization and determining combustibility and explosibility for metal dusts. Use of either test data or historical data is now permitted.
    • Chapter 5 has new requirements for management systems elements, such as management of change, hazard analysis, and PPE.
    • Chapter 7 establishes a threshold for fugitive dust accumulations, which is then used to trigger specific requirements related to dust hazard control.
    • Renamed Chapter 8: Ignition Sources addresses the control of ignition sources such as hot work, smoking, spark-resistant tools, static electricity and friction hazards. It also still addresses electrical area classification.

    Developed in response to fires where fire suppression water was used inappropriately, NFPA 484 is critical to fire safety.

    Everyone involved with facility fire safety or fire prevention and protection where combustible metals and/or combustible metal dusts are located, needs the latest edition of NFPA 484. (Softbound, 150 pp., 2015)

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