2019 NFPA 45 Standard - Current Edition
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  • Description

    Consistent with NFPA 101 and NFPA 30, the 2019 edition of NFPA 45 has improved fire safety requirements for new and existing laboratories.

    NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, is the industry's comprehensive source for requirements for the fire safe design and operation of instructional, educational, and industrial laboratories to avoid injury to lab occupants. This standard outlines the maximum allowable quantities of liquids and gases, as well as requirements for laboratory ventilating systems and chemical fume hoods.

    Updates align NFPA 45 with NFPA 101, NFPA 30, and other codes:

    • Revised requirements for exit doors clarify that the methods must comply with NFPA 101® egress requirements.
    • Revised terminology related to flame-resistant clothing aligns with NFPA 2112.
    • Content covering laboratory exhaust ducts, dampers, and exhaust ducting through fire barriers clarifies the installation of exhaust ducts through fire-rated barriers and aligns with the current editions of NFPA 90A and NFPA 91.
    • Language has been added to reference NFPA 30 for quantities of flammable and combustible liquids within inside liquid storage areas, and requirements for gas cylinders are aligned with NFPA 55.

    Other changes help designers, installers, facility managers, and AHJs comply, including added requirements and clarifications:

    • New requirements covering laboratory units in health care facilities, particularly flammable and combustible liquid quantity limitations, lab unit classifications, fire separation, and specific provisions for distillation and solvent recycling equipment and tissue processors
    • Clarification that curbing of laboratory floors can be used to prevent liquids from migrating to lower floor levels
    • Revised section that requires emergency lighting in all laboratory work areas
    • Clarified requirements for Class I wet standpipe systems, and revised requirements for manual fire alarm systems that include all buildings with laboratory units
    • Expanded provisions for laboratory exhaust systems prohibiting sound attenuation devices
    • Revised inspection, testing, and maintenance of fire-extinguishing systems in ductwork or chemical fume hoods
    • A new retroactivity clause clarifying that the chapter on chemical storage, handling, and waste disposal contains operational requirements that need to be applied to existing laboratories
    • New requirements limiting hazardous chemical containers stored and handled in laboratory work areas to 20 L (5 gal)
    • An added requirement for chemical storage that specifies a minimum inspection frequency of one year
    • Clarified requirements for emergency gas shutoffs and overpressure protection
    • Combined sections on heating operations and heating equipment
    • Annex material reinforcing the need to evaluate the effects of any mixing of wastes

    Make laboratory personnel, equipment, and buildings safer with the latest edition of NFPA 45. (Print, 63 pp., 2019)

     

    Interested in other editions of the NFPA 45? Use the drop down menu above to select the edition year you need.

  • Table of Contents (2019 Current Edition)
    NFPA<sup>®</sup> 45 Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals 2015 Edition

    NFPA® 45 Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, 2019 Edition

    Chapter 1 Administration
    1.1 Scope.
    1.2 Purpose.
    1.3 Application.
    1.4 Retroactivity.
    1.5 Equivalency.
    Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
    2.1 General.
    2.2 NFPA Publications.
    2.3 Other Publications.
    2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections.
    Chapter 3 Definitions
    3.1 Definitions.
    3.2 NFPA Official Definitions.
    3.3 General Definitions.
    Chapter 4 Laboratory Unit Hazard Classification
    4.1 General.
    4.2 Laboratory Unit Fire Hazard Classification.
    Chapter 5 Laboratory Unit Design and Construction
    5.1 Laboratory Unit Enclosure.
    5.2 Requirements for Life Safety.
    5.3 Means of Access to an Exit.
    5.4 Furniture, Casework, and Equipment.
    5.5 Electrical Installation.
    Chapter 6 Fire Protection
    6.1 Automatic Fire Extinguishing Systems.
    6.2 Standpipe and Hose Systems.
    6.3 Portable Fire Extinguishers.
    6.4 Fire Alarm Systems.
    6.5 Fire Prevention.
    6.6 Fire RetardantFlame-Resistant Clothing.
    Chapter 7 Laboratory Ventilating Systems and Hood Requirements
    7.1 General.
    7.2 Basic Requirements.
    7.3 Supply Systems.
    7.4 Exhaust Air Discharge.
    7.5 Duct Construction for Hoods and Local Exhaust Systems.
    7.6 Duct Velocities.
    7.7 Exhausters (Fans), Controls, Velocities, and Discharge.
    7.8 Chemical Fume Hood ConstructionRequirements.
    7.9 Chemical Fume Hood Location.
    7.10 Chemical Fume Hood Fire Protection.
    7.11 Inert Atmosphere Glove Boxes.
    7.12 Perchloric Acid Hoods.
    7.13 Identification of Chemical Fume Hood Systems.
    7.14 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance.
    Chapter 8 Chemical Storage, Handling, and Waste Disposal
    8.1 General.
    8.2 Ordering Procedures.
    8.3 Handling and Storage.
    8.4 Waste Handling and Disposal.
    Chapter 9 Flammable and Combustible Liquids
    9.1 Quantity Limitations.
    9.2 Supply Piping.
    9.3 Liquid Dispensing.
    9.4 Pressurized Liquid Dispensing Containers (PLDC).
    9.5 Equipment.
    Chapter 10 Compressed and Liquefied Gases
    10.1 Compressed and Liquefied Gases in Cylinders.
    10.2 Storage and Piping Systems.
    10.3 Outdoor Installation of Compressed Gas Cylinders for Servicing Laboratory Work Areas (Located Outside of Laboratory Work Areas).
    10.4 Cryogenic Fluids.
    Chapter 11 Laboratory Operations and Apparatus
    11.1 General.
    11.2 Operations.
    11.3 Apparatus.
    Chapter 12 Educational and Instructional Laboratory Operations
    12.1 General.
    12.2 Instructor Responsibilities.
    12.3 Chemical Storage and Handling.
    12.4 Other Requirements.
    Chapter 13 Hazard Identification
    13.1 General.
    13.2 Identification of Entrances.
    13.3 Exhaust Systems.
    13.4 Labeling of Containers.
    13.5 Identification Systems.
    Annex A Explanatory Material
    Annex B Supplementary Definitions
    Annex C Information on Explosion Hazards and Protection
    Annex D Supplementary Information on the Concept of the Laboratory Unit
    Annex E Flammability Characteristics of Common Compressed and Liquefied Gases
    Annex F Safety Tips for Compressed Gas Users
    Annex G Informational References
  • How the NFPA Handbooks Differ from Codes and Standards

    THE NFPA HANDBOOKS DIFFER FROM CODES AND STANDARDS

    Ever wonder what the difference is between an NFPA® handbook and a code or standard? We’re glad you asked.

    NFPA codes and standards both provide requirements for achieving outcomes. Handbooks take a deeper dive, providing the full text of a code or standard as well as expert commentary and features such as graphics, decision trees, testing procedures, case studies, sample forms and checklists, and other helpful aids to give a better understanding of the reasoning behind the requirements and how to apply them.

    JUST REMEMBER:

    • A code or standard is a framework—a set of rules to follow with a goal to achieve a certain result
    • A handbook is a connector—linking requirements to application by helping you understand the reasoning behind a code or standard

    The simplest way to think about it is that codes and standards list the technical requirements while handbooks explain those requirements to clarify how to apply them.

  • Prior Editions

    2015 Edition

    Major changes in the 2015 NFPA 45 clarify rules and provide up-to-date fire safety requirements for new and existing laboratories.

    NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals is the comprehensive source for requirements for the fire safe design and operation of instructional, educational, and industrial laboratories to avoid injury to lab occupants. This Standard outlines the maximum allowable quantities of liquids and gases, as well as requirements for laboratory ventilating systems and chemical fume hoods.

    An expanded scope and new chapter help protect students and staff in school laboratories.

    NFPA 45 now applies to all educational and instructional laboratories, independent of the quantity of chemicals present. In response to recent incidents involving injuries to students and faculty, a new chapter on Educational and Instructional Laboratories was added to this edition, with requirements intended to protect people during experiments and demonstrations involving hazardous materials.

    Other changes in the 2015 edition clarify application and help designers, installers, facility managers, and AHJs comply.

    By spelling out which chapters in NFPA 45 apply to new and existing facilities, the 2015 edition makes it easier for designers, facility managers, owners, and enforcers to ensure the correct protocols are in place. Other changes impact specific facilities, chemicals, and safety controls.

    • Clarified requirements explain where Class A, B, C, and D laboratory units are permitted below grade.
    • New requirements address fire retardant clothing.
    • New requirements for inert atmosphere glove boxes address the need for equipment to prevent fires caused by air- and water-reactive chemicals.
    • New safe handling requirements are provided for handling pyrophoric reagents and water-reactive material.
    • New safety control rules for open flame operations improve safety by reducing risks to personnel.

    Keep laboratory personnel, equipment, and buildings safe with the 2015 NFPA 45. (Softbound, 53 pp., 2015)

     

    Interested in other editions of the NFPA 45? Use the drop down menu above to select the edition year you need.

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  • How the NFPA Handbooks Differ from Codes and Standards

    THE NFPA HANDBOOKS DIFFER FROM CODES AND STANDARDS

    Ever wonder what the difference is between an NFPA® handbook and a code or standard? We’re glad you asked.

    NFPA codes and standards both provide requirements for achieving outcomes. Handbooks take a deeper dive, providing the full text of a code or standard as well as expert commentary and features such as graphics, decision trees, testing procedures, case studies, sample forms and checklists, and other helpful aids to give a better understanding of the reasoning behind the requirements and how to apply them.

    JUST REMEMBER:

    • A code or standard is a framework—a set of rules to follow with a goal to achieve a certain result
    • A handbook is a connector—linking requirements to application by helping you understand the reasoning behind a code or standard

    The simplest way to think about it is that codes and standards list the technical requirements while handbooks explain those requirements to clarify how to apply them.

  • Also in NFPA 45: Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals