2019 NFPA 400 Code - Current Edition
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  • Description

    Based on the latest information from the field, NFPA 400, Hazardous Materials Code is your source for specialized knowledge that helps protect workers, communities, and emergency responders.

    Unsafe storage, handling, and use of hazardous materials can result in serious incidents including loss of life and millions of dollars in property damage. NFPA 400, Hazardous Materials Code provides the newest safety information for any facility or occupancy that stores, handles, or uses one or more of the covered classes of hazardous materials.

    NFPA 400 consolidates requirements on oxidizers, organic peroxides, pesticides, and ammonium nitrate based on requirements from previous stand-alone documents: NFPA 430, NFPA 432, NFPA 434, and NFPA 490, respectively. It also includes requirements for materials that are classified as unstable/reactives, water reactives, corrosives, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic, and flammable solids.

    Additional changes to Chapter 11: Ammonium Nitrate are especially important for fertilizer storage facilities.

    Continuing updates made in the previous edition, Chapter 11 in the 2019 edition has been revised to facilitate a higher level of safety and compliance. Added text clarifies which sections apply retroactively, and clarifies that molten ammonium nitrate needs to be able to flow away from storage areas to open, unconfined areas free from incompatible materials. Revised fire protection system requirements specify that automatic fire sprinkler systems are not required in Type I or Type II construction buildings unless they also have combustible content. New requirements for ammonium nitrate storage in railcars address non–transportation-regulated storage.

    More key changes in the 2019 edition of NFPA 400:

    • Consolidated maximum allowable quantity (MAQ) tables in Chapter 5 for assembly, educational, day care, health care, ambulatory health care, detention and correctional, certain residential, and business occupancies to reduce repetition and for ease of use.
    • A new table extracts common path of travel distance limits from NFPA 5000®, Building Construction and Safety Code®.
    • Class II organic peroxides are divided Class IIA and Class IIB based on small-scale burn rate data and alignment with international classifications. Added definitions and updated MAQ tables include these two classes.
    • New annex material shows an example of a storage layout in a typical sprinklered warehouse storing Class 1 oxidizers.
    • Corresponding changes to annexes reflect revisions mentioned above.
    • New annex material clarifies amounts needed to be stored within and outside of cabinets when allowed.
    • Some of the assignments of organic peroxide formulation classifications in Annex F have been changed accordingly.
    • For organic peroxides, changes have been made to the requirements for fire protection systems, and to remove MAQs for segregated storage and cutoff storage, because these are addressed through the protection level and control area concepts.

    The 2019 edition of NFPA 400 is a critical tool for anyone responsible for the safe storage, handling, and use of hazardous materials in any occupancy, including facility owners/operators, Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJs), insurance professionals, and many others. (Print, 252 pp., 2019)

     

    Interested in other editions of NFPA 400? Use the drop down menu above to select the edition year you need.

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  • Table of Contents (2019 Current Edition)

    NFPA® 400 Hazardous Materials Code, 2019 Edition

    Chapter 1 Administration
    1.1 Scope.
    1.2 Purpose.
    1.3 Application.
    1.4 Retroactivity.
    1.5 Equivalency.
    1.6 Units and Formulas.
    1.7 Enforcement.
    1.8 Permits.
    1.9 Facility Closure.
    1.10 Emergency Planning.
    1.11 Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP).
    1.12 Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS).
    1.13 Plan Review.
    1.14 Technical Assistance.
    Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
    2.1 General.
    2.2 NFPA Publications.
    2.3 Other Publications.
    2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections.
    Chapter 3 Definitions
    3.1 General.
    3.2 NFPA Official Definitions.
    3.3 General Definitions.
    3.4 Special Performance-Based Definitions.
    Chapter 4 Classification of Materials, Wastes, and Hazard of Contents
    4.1 Hazardous Material Classification.
    4.2 Classification of High-Hazard Contents.
    4.3 Mixtures.
    4.4 Multiple Hazards.
    4.5 Classification of Waste.
    4.6 Combustibility of Materials.
    Chapter 5 Permissible Storage and Use Locations
    5.1 General.
    5.2 Control Areas.
    5.3 Protection Levels.
    5.4 Outdoor Areas.
    Chapter 6 Fundamental Requirements
    6.1 General Requirements.
    6.2 Requirements for Occupancies Storing Quantities of Hazardous Materials Exceeding the Maximum Allowable Quantities per Control Area for High-Hazard Contents.
    6.3 Requirements for Use, Dispensing, and Handling of Hazardous Materials in Amounts Exceeding Maximum Allowable Quantities.
    Chapter 7 Emergency Planning, Fire Risk Control, and Chemical Hazard Requirements for Industrial Processes
    7.1 General.
    7.2 Process Review and Plan Preparation.
    7.3 Operating and Maintenance Procedures.
    7.4 Safety Reviews.
    7.5 Incident Investigation Plan.
    7.6 Document Retention.
    Chapter 8 Reserved
    Chapter 9 Security for Hazardous Materials
    9.1 General.
    Chapter 10 Performance-Based Option
    10.1 General.
    10.2 Performance Criteria.
    10.3 Retained Prescriptive Requirements.
    10.4 Design Scenarios.
    10.5 Evaluation of Proposed Designs.
    10.6 Safety Factors.
    10.7 Documentation Requirements.
    Chapter 11 Ammonium Nitrate Solids and Liquids
    11.1 General.
    11.2 General Requirements for Storage.
    11.3 Indoor Storage.
    11.4 Outdoor Storage.
    11.5 General Requirements for Use.
    11.6 Indoor Use.
    11.7 Outdoor Use.
    11.8 Handling.
    Chapter 12 Corrosive Solids and Liquids
    12.1 General.
    12.2 General Requirements for Storage.
    12.3 Indoor Storage.
    12.4 Outdoor Storage.
    12.5 General Requirements for Use.
    12.6 Indoor Use.
    12.7 Outdoor Use.
    12.8 Handling.
    Chapter 13 Flammable Solids
    13.1 General.
    13.2 General Requirements for Storage.
    13.3 Indoor Storage.
    13.4 Outdoor Storage.
    13.5 General Requirements for Use.
    13.6 Indoor Use.
    13.7 Outdoor Use.
    13.8 Handling.
    Chapter 14 Organic Peroxide Formulations
    14.1 General.
    14.2 General Requirements for Storage.
    14.3 Indoor Storage.
    14.4 Outdoor Storage.
    14.5 General Requirements for Use.
    14.6 Indoor Use.
    14.7 Outdoor Use.
    14.8 Handling.
    Chapter 15 Oxidizer Solids and Liquids
    15.1 General.
    15.2 General Requirements for Storage.
    15.3 Indoor Storage.
    15.4 Outdoor Storage.
    15.5 General Requirements for Use.
    15.6 Indoor Use.
    15.7 Outdoor Use.
    15.8 Handling.
    Chapter 16 Reserved
    Chapter 17 Pyrophoric Solids and Liquids
    17.1 General.
    17.2 General Requirements for Storage.
    17.3 Indoor Storage.
    17.4 Outdoor Storage.
    17.5 General Requirements for Use.
    17.6 Indoor Use.
    17.7 Outdoor Use.
    17.8 Handling.
    Chapter 18 Toxic or Highly Toxic Solids and Liquids
    18.1 General.
    18.2 General Requirements for Storage.
    18.3 Indoor Storage.
    18.4 Outdoor Storage.
    18.5 General Requirements for Use.
    18.6 Indoor Use.
    18.7 Outdoor Use.
    18.8 Handling.
    Chapter 19 Unstable (Reactive) Solids and Liquids
    19.1 General.
    19.2 General Requirements for Storage.
    19.3 Indoor Storage.
    19.4 Outdoor Storage.
    19.5 General Requirements for Use.
    19.6 Indoor Use.
    19.7 Outdoor Use.
    19.8 Handling.
    Chapter 20 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids
    20.1 General.
    20.2 General Requirements for Storage.
    20.3 Indoor Storage.
    20.4 Outdoor Storage.
    20.5 General Requirements for Use.
    20.6 Indoor Use.
    20.7 Outdoor Use.
    20.8 Handling.
    Chapter 21 Storage, Use, and Handling of Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids
    21.1 General Provisions.
    21.2 Building-Related Controls.
    21.3 Compressed Gases.
    21.4 Cryogenic Fluids.
    21.5 Bulk Oxygen Systems.
    21.6 Hydrogen Compressed Gas Systems.
    21.7 Bulk Liquefied Hydrogen Systems.
    21.8 Gas Generation Systems.
    21.9 Insulated Liquid Carbon Dioxide Systems.
    21.10 Storage, Handling, and Use of Ethylene Oxide for Sterilization and Fumigation.
    21.11 Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants.
    21.12 Nitrous Oxide Systems.
    Annex A Explanatory Material
    Annex B Chemical Data
    Annex C Hazardous Materials Management Plans and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statements
    Annex D Security Information
    Annex E Properties and Uses of Ammonium Nitrate and Fire-Fighting Procedures
    Annex F Typical Organic Peroxide Formulations
    Annex G Oxidizers
    Annex H Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids
    Annex I Emergency Response Guideline
    Annex J Hazardous Material Definitions Comparison Table
    Annex K Sample Ordinance for Adopting NFPA 400
    Annex L Informational References
  • How the NFPA Handbooks Differ from Codes and Standards

    THE NFPA HANDBOOKS DIFFER FROM CODES AND STANDARDS

    Ever wonder what the difference is between an NFPA® handbook and a code or standard? We’re glad you asked.

    NFPA codes and standards both provide requirements for achieving outcomes. Handbooks take a deeper dive, providing the full text of a code or standard as well as expert commentary and features such as graphics, decision trees, testing procedures, case studies, sample forms and checklists, and other helpful aids to give a better understanding of the reasoning behind the requirements and how to apply them.

    JUST REMEMBER:

    • A code or standard is a framework—a set of rules to follow with a goal to achieve a certain result
    • A handbook is a connector—linking requirements to application by helping you understand the reasoning behind a code or standard

    The simplest way to think about it is that codes and standards list the technical requirements while handbooks explain those requirements to clarify how to apply them.

  • Prior Editions

    2016 Edition

    Protect workers, communities, and emergency responders with new specialized knowledge in the 2016 NFPA 400, Hazardous Materials Code.

    Unsafe storage, handling, and use of hazardous materials can result in serious incidents including loss of life and millions of dollars in property damage. The 2016 edition of NFPA 400, Hazardous Materials Code provides the most up-to-date safety information for any facility or occupancy that stores, handles, or uses one or more of the covered classes of hazardous materials.

    This one-stop source consolidates requirements on oxidizers, organic peroxides, pesticides, and ammonium nitrate based on requirements from prior stand-alone documents; NFPA 430, NFPA 432, NFPA 434, and NFPA 490 respectively. It also includes requirements for materials that are classified as unstable/reactives, water reactives, corrosives, pyrophoric materials, toxic and highly toxic, and flammable solids.

    Significant changes reflect lessons learned from a recent major disaster involving stored fertilizer.

    For the 2016 edition, additional requirements have been added to Chapter 11: Ammonium Nitrate to help protect workers, emergency responders, and facilities. The changes include:

    • New fire sprinkler system requirements for existing buildings of combustible construction and content
    • Added requirement for new buildings and storage bins to be of noncombustible construction
    • Added requirement for emergency planning and public notification/alert systems for both new and existing facilities
    • Other changes to protect ammonium nitrate from becoming contaminated, molten, and confined -- conditions that can lead to an explosion during fires involving ammonium nitrate
    • Revised Annex E, with information on the properties and uses of ammonium nitrate, clarified guidance for emergency responders on the conditions under which ammonium nitrate can explode, and when to fight such fires and when to evacuate

    Other changes in the 2016 edition of NFPA 400.

    • Modified Maximum Allowable Quantities (MAQ) in Chapter 5 reflect a change in typical container sizes from 50 lbs. to 55 lbs.
    • Updated Annex F classifications of organic peroxides
    • Updated Annex G classifications of several oxidizers based on work performed by the Fire Protection Research Foundation (FPRF)
    • Added New Annex J Hazardous Material Definitions Comparison Table that compares the hazardous materials definitions in the new OSHA standard with those in NFPA 400

    The new 2016 edition of NFPA 400 is a critical tool for anyone responsible for the safe storage, handling, and use of hazardous materials in any occupancy. Fertilizer storage facilities in particular should review the significant changes made in Chapter 11 of the Code. This document is a valuable tool for facility owners/operators, Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJs), insurance professionals, and many others. (Softbound, 233 pp., 2016)

     

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