2020 NFPA 31 Standard - Current Edition
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  • Description

    Access the benchmark standard for safer and more efficient design and installation of oil-burning equipment with NFPA 31, 2020 edition.

    Heating equipment is among the leading causes of fire, resulting in hundreds of deaths and injuries and over a billion dollars in damages each year. NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment, offers extensive criteria for helping to ensure fire-safe installations and protecting people and property.

    The standard provides requirements for the proper installation of equipment that burns liquid fuel such as No. 2 heating oil as well as lighter and heavier fuels. NFPA 31 provisions cover boilers, air heaters, space heaters, and other liquid fuel-burning equipment, and their fuel supplies in residential, commercial, or industrial occupancies.

    The 2020 edition is significantly revised to reflect the most current industry knowledge and best practices.

    NFPA 31 is a must-have safety document for helping designers, contractors, and installers safeguard buildings and occupants. The standard is also relied on by authorities having jurisdiction (AHJ) and insurance underwriters who must verify the correct installation of oil-burning equipment.

    Changes to the 2020 edition include:

    • Edits to Chapter 3 definitions for heating fuel and used oil
    • Modified list of acceptable fuels in Chapter 4 based on updated ASTM reference standards
    • Addition of annex material to explain changes regarding acceptable fuels
    • Revised specifications for acceptable piping and fitting materials in Section 8.2 based on edits to the reference test standards
    • Updated references based on extracted text

    Update your information to help improve building fire safety and ensure compliance with the latest requirements.

    NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment, 2020 edition, is a critical resource for helping to protect all different types of occupancies from fire and related hazards. Order your copy today.

  • Table of Contents (2020 Current Edition)

    NFPA® 31 Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment, 2020 Edition

    Chapter 1 Administration
    1.1 Scope.
    1.2 Purpose.
    1.3 Application. (Reserved)
    1.4 Retroactivity.
    1.5 Equivalency.
    1.6 Units.
    1.7 Code Adoption Requirements. (Reserved)
    Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
    2.1 General.
    2.2 NFPA Publications.
    2.3 Other Publications.
    2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections.
    Chapter 3 Definitions
    3.1 General.
    3.2 NFPA Official Definitions.
    3.3 General Definitions.
    Chapter 4 Basic Installation and Operation Requirements
    4.1 Scope.
    4.2 Use of Approved Equipment.
    4.3 Installation of Oil-Burning Appliances and Equipment.
    4.4 Electrical Services.
    4.5 Acceptable Liquid Fuels.
    4.6 Use of Crankcase Oil and Used Oil.
    4.7 Temporary Heating.
    Chapter 5 Air for Combustion and Ventilation
    5.1 Scope.
    5.2 Basic Requirements.
    5.3 Appliances Located in Unconfined Spaces.
    5.4 Appliances Located in Confined Spaces.
    5.5 Combustion Air for Commercial and Industrial Installations.
    5.6 Louvers and Grilles.
    5.7 Specially Engineered Installations.
    Chapter 6 Venting of Combustion (Flue) Gases
    6.1 Scope.
    6.2 Basic Requirements.
    6.3 Draft.
    6.4 Draft Regulators.
    6.5 Chimney Connectors.
    6.6 Chimneys.
    6.7 Special Venting Systems.
    6.8 Replacement and Upgrading of Chimneys. (Reserved)
    Chapter 7 Tanks for Liquid Fuels
    7.1 Scope.
    7.2 Basic Design and Construction of Tanks.
    7.3 Supports and Foundations.
    7.4 Installation of Underground Tanks.
    7.5 Installation of Tanks Inside Buildings.
    7.6 Requirements for Dedicated Tank Rooms and Tank Enclosures.
    7.7 Auxiliary Tanks.
    7.8 Installation of Outside Aboveground Tanks.
    7.9 Tank Heating Systems.
    7.10 Special Storage Arrangements.
    7.11 Tank Leakage Testing and Periodic Inspection.
    7.12 Abandonment and Removal from Service of Tanks and Related Equipment.
    7.13 Fuel Storage Systems That Are Permanently Taken Out of Service.
    7.14 Permanent Abandonment of Underground Tanks.
    Chapter 8 Heating Fuel Piping Systems and Components
    8.1 Scope.
    8.2 Acceptable Piping — Types and Materials.
    8.3 Acceptable Fittings — Types and Materials.
    8.4 Piping System Design.
    8.5 Tank Fill Piping.
    8.6 Tank Vent Piping.
    8.7 Fuel Supply Piping and Return Piping.
    8.8 Auxiliary Tank Piping.
    8.9 Piping for Cross-Connected Tanks.
    8.10 Pumps, Valves, Gauges, and Appurtenances.
    8.11 Testing of Fuel Supply Piping.
    Chapter 9 Oil Distribution Systems
    9.1 Scope.
    9.2 Centralized Oil Distribution Systems.
    9.3 Oil Distribution Systems for Roof-Mounted or Ceiling-Suspended Oil-Fired Units.
    Chapter 10 Installation of Oil Burners and Oil-Burning Appliances
    10.1 Scope.
    10.2 Basic Requirements.
    10.3 Posting of Instructions.
    10.4 Replacement of Appliances and Chimneys. (Reserved)
    10.5 Operating Controls.
    10.6 Specific Requirements for Installation of Boilers, Furnaces, Floor-Mounted Unit Heaters, and Water Heaters.
    10.7 Specific Requirements for Attic Furnaces.
    10.8 Specific Requirements for Duct Furnaces.
    10.9 Specific Requirements for Floor Furnaces.
    10.10 Specific Requirements for Furnaces Used with Refrigeration Systems.
    10.11 Specific Requirements for Industrial Furnaces and Boilers — Stationary Type.
    10.12 Specific Requirements for Miscellaneous Heaters (Air Heaters, Salamanders, and so forth).
    10.13 Specific Requirements for Recessed Wall Furnaces.
    10.14 Specific Requirements for Floor-Mounted Restaurant-Type Cooking Appliances.
    10.15 Specific Requirements for Suspended-Type Unit Heaters.
    10.16 Specific Requirements for Direct-Vent Appliances. (Reserved)
    10.17 Specific Requirements for Appliances on Roofs.
    10.18 Installation of Outdoor Appliances.
    Chapter 11 Installation and Operation of Oil-Burning Stoves, Kerosene-Burning Room Heaters, and Kerosene-Burning Portable Heaters
    11.1 Scope.
    11.2 Basic Requirements.
    11.3 Additional Requirements for Kerosene-Burning Portable Heaters.
    Chapter 12 Used Oil–Burning Appliances
    12.1 Scope.
    12.2 Basic Requirements.
    12.3 Use of Used Oil–Burning Appliances.
    12.4 Listing Requirements.
    12.5 Installation Instructions.
    12.6 Installation Clearances.
    12.7 Burners for Used Oil–Burning Appliances.
    12.8 Venting of Combustion (Flue) Gases.
    12.9 Used Oil Supply Tanks.
    12.10 Piping, Pumps, and Valves.
    12.11 Operating Requirements.
    12.12 Vent Connector and Chimney Inspection.
    12.13 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulations.
    Chapter 13 Oil-and-Gas–Burning Appliances
    13.1 Scope.
    13.2 Listing Requirements.
    13.3 Installation, Operation, and Servicing Instructions.
    13.4 Clearances from Oil–Gas-Fired Appliance to Combustible Material.
    13.5 Construction.
    13.6 Flue Connections.
    13.7 Piping, Pumps, and Valves.
    13.8 Performance.
    13.9 Testing.
    Annex A Explanatory Material
    Annex B Reserved
    Annex C Typical Chimney and Vent Terminations
    Annex D Considerations for Combustion Equipment Firing Alternative (Nonpetroleum) Fuels
    Annex E Relining Masonry Chimneys
    Annex F Informational References
  • Prior Editions

    2016 Edition

    Guard against fires in heating equipment with NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment.

    Updated in the 2016 Edition to reflect the latest developments in fuels and appliances, NFPA 31 is the benchmark for the correct installation of boilers, air heaters, and other liquid fuel-burning equipment, and their fuel supplies. Designers, contractors, and installers rely on this Standard for guidance that protects property and building occupants by ensuring a fire-safe installation. Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJs) and insurance underwriters depend on NFPA 31 requirements to verify the safety of installations in industrial, commercial, and residential occupancies.

    The Standard covers all liquid fuels that are approved for use in oil-burning appliances.

    In addition to addressing heating appliances that use No. 2 fuel oil and other petroleum-based oils, the Standard includes requirements for appliances that use other acceptable fuels -- including biodiesel blends, biofuels, and recycled lubrication oil. Comprehensive chapters present requirements for the installation and operation of appliances, air for combustion and ventilation, venting of combustion gases, and storage tanks and piping systems for liquid fuels.

    Updates in this edition include:

    • Prohibition of the use of crankcase oil (used oil) burning appliances in residential occupancies
    • Provision to require a room depressurization test when a new or replacement appliance is installed to ensure proper operation of the appliance. Also, suggested means for conducting the test and for remediation to correct excess negative pressure
    • New guidance for anchoring of fuel oil storage tanks
    • Requirement for listing of fuel oil level gauges
    • New diagrams depicting multiple tank fuel oil storage systems and the proper placement of all appurtenances on tanks and in the fuel oil supply lines
    • Mandatory 5-foot clearance between stored materials and oil-burning appliances, chimneys, chimney connectors, and flues
    • Requirement for a duplex electrical receptacle for use by the service technician

    Stay up-to-date with this important working tool for anyone responsible for the safe design or installation of liquid fuel-burning appliances and their fuel supply. (Print, 60 pp., 2016) 

    Interested in other editions of the NFPA 31? Use the drop down menu above to select the edition year you need.

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