2022 NFPA 291 Recommended Practice - Current Edition
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  • Description

    Conduct fire flow testing and correctly mark hydrants using NFPA 291, Recommended Practice for Water Flow Testing and Marking of Hydrants, which now includes both metric and imperial measurements.

    NFPA 291, Recommended Practice for Water Flow Testing and Marking of Hydrants, provides fire protection engineers, contractors, installers, and authorities having jurisdiction (AHJs) with the latest procedures to:

    • Determine the rate of flow available at various locations for fire protection systems and firefighting purposes.
    • Classify hydrants in accordance with their rated capacities.
    • Color-code hydrants to indicate their class.

    For the 2022 edition of NFPA 291, Recommended Practice for Water Flow Testing and Marking of Hydrants, the purpose and application of the recommended practice have been revised to clarify its applicability.

    Further changes made for the 2022 edition include the following:

    • Definitions for a variety of hydrant types have been added.
    • The list of equipment needed for field work has been modified and expanded.
    • A description of the pressure gauges to be used and the various types of discharge devices have been added.
    • A new test method for evaluating the available flow through a single hydrant has been added.

    NFPA 291, Recommended Practice for Water Flow Testing and Marking of Hydrants, applies to both public and private hydrants and is essential for municipal leaders and anyone responsible for fire protection and public fire safety planning — including insurance representatives, AHJs, and system installing contractors. Order your copy of the 2022 edition today to help ensure your hydrants are up to date. (Print, 28 pp., 2022)

  • Table of Contents (2022 Current Edition)

    NFPA® 291 Recommended Practice for Water Flow Testing and Marking of Hydrants, 2022 Edition

    Chapter 1 Administration
    1.1 Scope.
    1.2 Purpose.
    1.3 Application.
    1.4 Units.
    Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
    2.1 General.
    2.2 NFPA Publications. (Reserved)
    2.3 Other Publications.
    2.4 References for Extracts in Recommendations Sections.
    Chapter 3 Definitions
    3.1 General.
    3.2 NFPA Official Definitions.
    3.3 General Definitions.
    3.4 Hydrant Definitions.
    Chapter 4 Flow Testing
    4.1 Water Flow Testing Purposes.
    4.2 Rating Pressure.
    4.3 Procedure.
    4.4 Layout of Test and Procedure to Determine the Available Water Supply in a Water Main.
    4.5 Layout of Test and Procedure to Evaluate the Available Flow Through a Fire Hydrant.
    4.6 Equipment.
    4.7 Test Procedure.
    4.8 Pitot Readings.
    4.9 Determination of Discharge.
    4.10 Use of Pumper Outlets.
    4.11 Determination of Discharge Without a Pitot.
    4.12 Calculation Results.
    4.13 Data Sheet.
    4.14 System Corrections.
    4.15 Public Hydrant Testing and Flushing.
    Chapter 5 Marking of Hydrants
    5.1 Classification of Hydrants.
    5.2 Marking of Hydrants.
    Annex A Explanatory Material
    Annex B Informational References
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    The simplest way to think about it is that codes and standards list the technical requirements while handbooks explain those requirements to clarify how to apply them.

  • Prior Editions

    2019 Edition

    Conduct fire flow testing and marking of hydrants using NFPA 291 -- now with the discharge formula also in metric.

    NFPA 291, Recommended Practice for Fire Flow Testing and Marking of Hydrants applies to both public and private hydrants to provide fire protection engineers, contractors, installers, and AHJs with the latest testing procedures to:

    • Determine the rate of flow available at various locations for firefighting purposes
    • Classify hydrants in accordance with their rated capacities
    • Color-code hydrants to indicate their class

    Now including both metric and imperial measurements.

    The 2019 edition of NFPA 291 adds the metric formula for discharge through circular orifices. In addition to the metric formula, the 2019 edition provides an updated table on discharge through circular orifices to provide measurable velocity pressures in the metric system.

    NFPA 291 is essential for municipal leaders and anyone responsible for fire protection and public fire safety planning -- including insurance representatives, AHJs, and system installing contractors. (Print, 24 pp., 2019)


    2016 Edition

    Ensure adequate water supplies in a fire emergency with guidance in NFPA 291.

    NFPA 291, Recommended Practice for Fire Flow Testing and Marking of Hydrants provides fire protection engineers, contractors, installers, and AHJs with the latest testing procedures to:

    • Determine the rate of flow available at various locations for firefighting purposes
    • Classify hydrants in accordance with their rated capacities
    • Color-code hydrants to indicate their class

    Complete with provisions for the recommend testing of both public and private hydrants, the 2016 edition of NFPA 291 is essential for municipal leaders and anyone responsible for fire protection and public fire safety planning -- including insurance representatives, AHJs, and system installing contractors. (Softbound, 17 pp., 2016)

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  • Also in NFPA 291: Recommended Practice for Fire Flow Testing and Marking of Hydrants