2020 NFPA 25 Standard - Current Edition
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  • Description

    Order NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems for comprehensive requirements for maintaining critical life safety suppression systems for optimal performance. The 2020 edition is revised to include the latest in inspection, testing, and maintenance requirements for sprinkler systems with new and updated terminologies, definitions, and clarifications to reflect the most current standards and technology.


    Interested in other editions of NFPA 25? Use the drop down menu above to select the edition year you need.

  • Table of Contents

    NFPA® 25 Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, 2020 Edition

    Chapter 1 Administration
    1.1 Scope.
    1.2 Purpose.
    1.3 Application.
    1.4 Units.
    Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
    2.1 General.
    2.2 NFPA Publications.
    2.3 Other Publications.
    2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections.
    Chapter 3 Definitions
    3.1 General.
    3.2 NFPA Official Definitions.
    3.3 General Definitions.
    3.4 Deluge Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems Definitions.
    3.5 Valve Definitions.
    3.6 Water-Based Fire Protection System Definitions.
    3.7 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance (ITM) Task Frequencies.
    Chapter 4 General Requirements
    4.1 Responsibility of Property Owner or Designated Representative.
    4.2 Manufacturer's Corrective Action.
    4.3 Records.
    4.4 Water Supply Status.
    4.5 Inspection.
    4.6 Testing.
    4.7 Performance-Based Compliance Programs.
    4.8 Maintenance.
    4.9 Safety.
    Chapter 5 Sprinkler Systems
    5.1 General.
    5.2 Inspection.
    5.3 Testing.
    5.4 Maintenance.
    5.5 Component Action Requirements.
    Chapter 6 Standpipe and Hose Systems
    6.1 General.
    6.2 Inspection.
    6.3 Testing.
    6.4 Maintenance.
    6.5 Component Action Requirements.
    Chapter 7 Private Fire Service Mains
    7.1 General.
    7.2 Inspection and Corrective Action.
    7.3 Testing.
    7.4 Maintenance.
    7.5 Component Action Requirements.
    Chapter 8 Fire Pumps
    8.1 General.
    8.2 Inspection.
    8.3 Testing.
    8.4 Reports.
    8.5 Maintenance.
    8.6 Component Replacement Testing Requirements.
    Chapter 9 Water Storage Tanks
    9.1 General.
    9.2 Inspection.
    9.3 Testing.
    9.4 Maintenance.
    9.5 Automatic Tank Fill Valves.
    9.6 Component Action Requirements.
    Chapter 10 Water Spray Fixed Systems
    10.1 General.
    10.2 Inspection and Maintenance Procedures.
    10.3 Operational Tests.
    10.4 Ultra-High-Speed Water Spray System (UHSWSS) Operational Tests.
    10.5 Component Action Requirements.
    Chapter 11 Foam-Water Sprinkler Systems
    11.1 General.
    11.2 Inspection.
    11.3 Operational Tests.
    11.4 Maintenance.
    11.5 Component Action Requirements.
    Chapter 12 Water Mist Systems
    12.1 General.
    12.2 Inspection.
    12.3 Testing.
    12.4 Maintenance..
    12.5 Training.
    Chapter 13 Common Components and Valves
    13.1 General.
    13.2 General Provisions.
    13.3 Control Valves in Water-Based Fire Protection Systems.
    13.4 System Valves.
    13.5 Pressure-Reducing Valves and Relief Valves.
    13.6 Hose Valves.
    13.7 Backflow Prevention Assemblies.
    13.8 Fire Department Connections.
    13.9 Automatic Detection Equipment.
    13.10 Air Compressors and Nitrogen Generators.
    13.11 Component Testing Requirements.
    Chapter 14 Internal Piping Condition and Obstruction Investigation
    14.1 General.
    14.2 Assessment of Internal Condition of Piping.
    14.3 Obstruction Investigation and Prevention.
    14.4 Ice Obstruction.
    Chapter 15 Impairments
    15.1 General.
    15.2 Impairment Coordinator.
    15.3 Tag Impairment System.
    15.4 Impaired Equipment.
    15.5 Preplanned Impairment Programs.
    15.6 Emergency Impairments.
    15.7 Restoring Systems to Service.
    Chapter 16 Special Requirements from Other NFPA Documents
    16.1 General.
    16.2 Small Residential Board and Care Occupancies.
    Annex A Explanatory Material
    Annex B Forms and Reports for Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    Annex C Possible Causes of Pump Troubles
    Annex D Obstruction Investigation
    Annex E Hazard Evaluation Form
    Annex F Connectivity and Data Collection
    Annex G Color-Coded Tagging Program
    Annex H Informational References
  • How the NFPA Handbooks Differ from Codes and Standards


    Ever wonder what the difference is between an NFPA® handbook and a code or standard? We’re glad you asked.

    NFPA codes and standards both provide requirements for achieving outcomes. Handbooks take a deeper dive, providing the full text of a code or standard as well as expert commentary and features such as graphics, decision trees, testing procedures, case studies, sample forms and checklists, and other helpful aids to give a better understanding of the reasoning behind the requirements and how to apply them.


    • A code or standard is a framework—a set of rules to follow with a goal to achieve a certain result
    • A handbook is a connector—linking requirements to application by helping you understand the reasoning behind a code or standard

    The simplest way to think about it is that codes and standards list the technical requirements while handbooks explain those requirements to clarify how to apply them.

  • Prior Editions

    Prevent fire tragedies and loss with sprinkler care based on NFPA 25.

    Improper maintenance of automatic sprinkler systems can result in less effectiveness, reduction of service life, or even catastrophic failure. That's why maintenance professionals, inspectors, and building owners rely on NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. Maximize time and efficiency without compromising reliability with requirements governing fire sprinkler systems -- including foam-water and fixed water spray systems, standpipe and hose systems, fire pumps, fire service piping and appurtenances, and water storage tanks. The Standard is so essential to proper sprinkler care, it's adopted by jurisdictions nationwide, and NFPA 13 requires installers leave a copy of NFPA 25 with property owners.

    The 2017 edition of NFPA 25 includes revised and updated ITM tables throughout; new residential sprinkler replacement requirements address sprinklers that are no longer available; New requirements clarify steps to take if inspections reveal missing escutcheons, or if listed escutcheons are no longer available; added criteria cover automated inspections and testing; significant changes in Chapter 13 address waterflow alarm devices, preaction and deluge valves, air compressors, and general pressure gauge criteria; fire pump terms are aligned with NFPA 20, Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection; new Annexes address connectivity and data collection, and color-coded tagging programs.

    The 2014 edition of NFPA 25 offers comprehensive guidance on maintaining suppression systems for optimum performance, and this edition introduces an expanded scope that includes water-mist systems. Changes include updated fire pump operating test-frequency rules; new fuel-supply testing procedures for diesel-driven fire pumps; a modified definition of "sprinkler system" for consistency with NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems; clarification about inspecting the insides of sprinkler pipes; as well as the addition of valve status testing to ensure water is reaching the sprinkler system.

    The 2011 edition of NFPA 25 clarifies the role the Standard plays in a fire protection plan. New terms in this edition define "critical deficiencies" and "noncritical deficiencies," so maintainers and owners can accurately identify corrective actions and prioritize repairs. Updated testing frequencies are based on the growing database of inspection, testing, and maintenance records. Other revisions clarify the roles and responsibilities of the building owner and the designated owner's representatives, to avoid critical oversights in sprinkler care. New Annex E classifies sprinkler repairs and has examples of sprinkler repairs and their classifications based on the new terms. A new Hazard Evaluation Form in Annex F helps you identify how building renovations could impact the adequacy of fire protection systems.

    The 2008 edition of NFPA 25 introduces guidelines for a performance-based testing option that offers alternate, flexible means of compliance. While the previous edition of the Standard included performance-based testing on a limited basis in the "equivalency" option, the 2008 edition presents practical guidance on how to implement and monitor the process, subject to approval by the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). New coverage includes what variables to take into account when adjusting frequencies, which factors to consider in the transition to a performance-based test program, and how to establish a failure rate -- complete with suggested calculation methods and examples. Other changes include new component replacement testing tables for each type of water-based system, first-time coverage of dry pipe system testing, a new chapter on water mist systems maintenance, and a new impairment procedures requirement.

    The 2002 edition of NFPA 25 adds new testing requirements for dry sprinklers, revised 5-year water tank inspection requirements, and new timing for testing of waterflow and supervisory switches. Other changes permit the use of ultrasonic (UT) and radiographic (RT) examinations to comply with obstruction investigation provisions. The 2002 edition also expands guidance for detecting Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) and strategies for treatment.


    Interested in other editions of NFPA 25? Use the drop down menu above to select the edition year you need.

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  • NFPA eForms

    NFPA® now makes available PDF versions of forms originally published in our NFPA Standards and handbooks. These eForms allow you to fill in the form fields electronically and then save, print, or share the file. NFPA eForms are intended for use on computers and are compatible with some mobile devices and apps. An internet connection is not needed to fill in and save the forms once they are downloaded to your device.

    NFPA eForms can be used with many PDF applications. Functions of the specific PDF application will work on the forms. For example, most PDF applications include a signature feature, allowing you to use your finger, stylus, or mouse to sign a document.

    Note that NFPA eForms are not compatible with the NFPA eLibrary app.

    Features of the NFPA eForms include:

    • Editable fields and checkboxes that allow you to enter content
    • Spell check
    • Easy file sharing (through email or Cloud storage)
    • Printing
    • Basic PDF markup tools, including highlighting and comment boxes
    • A "Learn More" button with explanatory comments to help you understand the requirements necessary to complete the form
    • Electronic signature
    • Searching form text
    • Table of contents with links to each form within the file
    • Dedicated placeholder to add company logo

    Additional features that may be available, depending on PDF software/app you choose:

    • Text message sharing of forms
    • Attaching files to PDF (including audio files)
    • Duplicating forms
    • Advanced tools, including inserting stamps and inserting images
    • Clearing all fields at once
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    • Save “flattened” option that prevents further editing of content entered into form fields
    • Automatic saving when closing the file
    • Date fields with scroll bar selection

    Directions on how to use on a desktop or mobile device are provided on the first page of the PDF.

  • eForms Table of Contents (2020 Current Edition)

    eForms Table of Contents

    • Wet Pipe Sprinkler Systems Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    • Dry Pipe Sprinkler Systems Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    • Preaction/Deluge Sprinkler Systems Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    • Standpipe and Hose Systems Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    • Water Spray Systems Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    • Water Mist Systems Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    • Foam-Water Sprinkler Systems Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    • Private Fire Service Mains Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    • Private Fire Service Mains Hydrant Flow Test Report
    • Water Storage Tanks Inspection
    • Fire Sprinkler System Hazard Evaluation
    • Contractor’s Material and Test Certificate for Aboveground Piping
    • Contractor’s Material and Test Certificate for Underground Piping
    • Fire Pump Weekly Inspection
    • Fire Pump Weekly Operating Tests
    • Fire Pump Monthly Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    • Fire Pump Quarterly Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    • Fire Pump Semiannual Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    • Fire Pump Annual Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance
    • Fire Pump Annual Performance Test
    • Possible Causes of Fire Pump Troubles
  • Also in Fire Protection Systems