2021 NFPA 160 Standard - Current Edition
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  • Description

    Help eliminate fire and life safety hazards relating to the use of flame effects with the new edition of NFPA 160.

    Flame effects used for entertainment purposes at concerts, theme parks, and other venues represent a potential threat to people and property. NFPA 160, Standard for the Use of Flame Effects Before an Audience, answers the need for a document providing guidance to public safety officials, designers, and operators of flame effects in permanent, temporary, and traveling installations. The standard offers comprehensive provisions for the design, fabrication, installation, control, operation, testing, and maintenance of flame effect systems.

    Content covers requirements for:

    • Holding areas for flame effect materials and devices
    • Documenting, permitting, and approval of installations
    • Use of flame effects and operator qualifications and responsibilities
    • Flame effect control system and component design, function, and operation
    • Installation, pressure testing, and inspection
    • Fire protection provisions for permanent and temporary installations

    The 2021 edition provides the most current criteria for helping to safeguard audience members, performers, operators, assistants, support personnel, and property from flame effect hazards.

    Flame effects operators, special effects operators, venue managers, and enforcing officials have the significant responsibility of protecting audiences, performers, and crew from fire risks. NFPA 160 explains how to control the use of flame effects in compliance with recognized codes and standards.

    Changes to this edition include:

    • Extensive reorganization of the document to cover new advances in flame effect technology
    • Revisions to separate each flame effect technology by fuel source, which includes solid, liquid, prepackaged single-use containers, and gels, rather than only include requirements for flame effect technology using flammable gases in previous editions of the standard
    • Consolidation of requirements that are common for all flame effect systems into Chapter 9
    • Relocation of requirements specific to the fuel of the device into Chapters 11 through 13
    • New requirements for fire performers in Chapter 14

    Stay up to date with the latest information on using flame effects in front of a live audience.

    This standard is an essential publication for anyone with concerns for flame effect safety. Place an order for your copy of NFPA 160, 2021 edition today. (Print, 36 pp., 2021)

  • Table of Contents (2021 Current Edition)

    NFPA® 160 Standard for the Use of Flame Effects Before an Audience, 2021 Edition

    Chapter 1 Administration
    1.1 Scope.
    1.2 Purpose.
    1.3 Application.
    1.4 Retroactivity.
    1.5 Equivalency.
    Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
    2.1 General.
    2.2 NFPA Publications.
    2.3 Other Publications.
    2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections.
    Chapter 3 Definitions
    3.1 General.
    3.2 NFPA Official Definitions.
    3.3 General Definitions.
    Chapter 4 Holding Areas for Flame Effect Materials and Devices
    4.1 General.
    4.2 Holding Areas.
    Chapter 5 Permit and Approval Requirements and Terms of Installation
    5.1 Permit Requirements.
    5.2 Approval Requirements.
    5.3 Content of Flame Effect Plans.
    5.4 Flame Effect Demonstration.
    5.5 Interruption of Fire Protection and Life Safety Systems During Flame Effect Demonstrations and Operations.
    Chapter 6 Documentation of Flame Effects
    6.1 General.
    6.2 Operating Procedures.
    Chapter 7 Use of Flame Effects
    7.1 Testing and Evaluation.
    7.2 Housekeeping.
    7.3 Site Inspection.
    7.4 Smoking.
    7.5 Rehearsal and Pre-Show Operations.
    7.6 Show Operations.
    7.7 Post-Show Operations.
    7.8 Maintenance.
    7.9 Emergency Operations.
    7.10 Protective Clothing.
    7.11 Security.
    Chapter 8 Flame Effect Operator
    8.1 Operator Qualifications.
    8.2 Operator Responsibilities.
    8.3 Substance Abuse and Safety.
    8.4 Minimum Age.
    Chapter 9 Flame Effect System Classification and General Requirements
    9.1 General Requirements for Flame Effect Control System Design.
    9.2 Specific Requirements for Flame Effect Control System Design and Operation, by Group.
    9.3 Implementation of the Required Control Functions.
    Chapter 10 Gaseous Flame Effect Appliance Components, Control Systems, and Design
    10.1 Design Criteria.
    Chapter 11 Flame Effect Appliances Using Fuel in Prepackaged Single-Use Containers and Appliance System Components, Control Systems, and Design
    11.1 Design Criteria.
    Chapter 12 Liquid-Fuel Flame Effect Appliance Components, Control Systems, and Design
    12.1 Design Criteria.
    Chapter 13 Gel- and Solid-Fuel Flame Effect Appliance System Components, Control Systems, and Design
    13.1 Design Criteria.
    Chapter 14 Fire Performers
    14.1 Performers.
    14.2 Safety Personnel.
    14.3 Fire Props.
    14.4 Fuels.
    14.5 Performance.
    14.6 Post-Performance Procedures.
    Chapter 15 System Installation and Testing
    15.1 General.
    15.2 Pressure Testing and Inspection of Piping.
    15.3 Temperatures of Components and Surroundings.
    Chapter 16 Fire Protection Provisions
    16.1 General.
    16.2 Evaluation for Permanently Installed Flame Effects.
    16.3 Additional Fire Safety Provisions for Temporary Installations.
    16.4 Standby Fire Safety Personnel Requirements.
    Annex A Explanatory Material
    Annex B Design of Flame Effects
    Annex C Inspection Guidelines
    Annex D Informational References
  • Prior Editions

    Protect audience members, performers, operators and property with the 2016 NFPA 160, Standard for the Use of Flame Effects Before an Audience.

    Flame effects are popular entertainment in permanent installations such as theme parks, as well as for temporary use in traveling shows. Yet they pose potentially deadly fire and life safety hazards to the audience, support personnel, performers, the operator, and assistants -- along with fire protection hazards to the property.

    Widely referenced across the United States, NFPA 160, Standard for the Use of Flame Effects Before an Audience provides the latest criteria for the design, fabrication, installation, testing, control, operation, and maintenance of any installation where flame effects are used.

    The 2016 edition of NFPA 160 helps everyone involved with flame effects -- from the designer to the installer, maintainer, and AHJ:

    • Added requirements for the use of hybrid flame effects coordinate with NFPA 1126, Standard for the Use of Pyrotechnics Before a Proximate Audience, to eliminate an area of confusion for Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJs) as well as designers and maintainers of the installation.

    The latest edition of NFPA 160 is a must for flame effects operators, special effects operators, venue managers, and enforcing officials. (Print, 26 pp., 2016)

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