NFPA 77: Recommended Practice on Static Electricity

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A buildup of static electricity can be a considerable hazard, as it can discharge through the air and ignite flammable vapors and dust. NFPA 77: Recommended Practice on Static Electricity provides important information on evaluating and controlling static electric hazards to help protect those working where these hazards might be present.

NFPA 77 offers guidance on how to:

  • Eliminate static electric charges by bonding and grounding.
  • Manage static electricity where ignitable dusts or vapors are present.
  • Manage the flow rates and flow velocities of liquids when they are transferred.

This Recommended Practice covers industries as diverse as chemical processing, petroleum refining, printing, and calendaring. It includes answers to questions about properly bonding and grounding a container, and how to determine whether a static electricity hazard poses a risk.

NFPA 77 has been updated to reflect some important changes:

  • It has been completely reorganized by dividing some of the chapters into smaller, more cohesive units.
  • In Chapter 5, the descriptions of the mechanisms by which static electric charges are formed have been simplified.
  • The section on flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBCs) has been completely rewritten to comport with international standard IEC 61340-4-4, Standard Test Methods for Specific Applications -- Electrostatic Classification of Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers.
  • The section on static electric hazards in bulk storage tanks has been completely revised to incorporate international standard IEC 60079-32, Explosive Atmospheres -- Part 32.2: Electrostatic Hazards.

To prevent ignition of flammable vapors, dust, and particulates, you'll need to get your hands on the gold standard of static electricity safety. Order NFPA 77 today. (Softbound, 67 pp., 2014)

NFPA® 77 Recommended Practice on Static Electricity 2014 Edition

Chapter 1 Administration
1.1 Scope
1.2 Purpose
1.3 Application (Reserved)
1.4 Equivalency
1.5 Symbols, Units, and Formulas
Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
2.1 General
2.2 NFPA Publications
2.3 Other Publications
2.4 References for Extracts in Recommendations Sections
Chapter 3 Definitions
3.1 General
3.2 NFPA Official Definitions
3.3 General Definitions
Chapter 4 Units and Symbols of Measure
4.1 Units (Reserved)
4.2 Symbols
Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Static Electricity
5.1 General
5.2 Separation of Charge by Contact of Materials
5.3 Charging by Induction
5.4 Accumulation and Dissipation of Charge
5.5 Discharge of Static Electricity and Ignition Mechanisms
Chapter 6 Evaluating Static Electricity Hazards
6.1 General
6.2 Measuring a Static Electric Charge
6.3 Measuring the Charge on a Conductor
6.4 Measuring the Charge on a Nonconductor
6.5 General Practices
6.6 Measuring the Accumulation and Relaxation of Charge
6.7 Measuring the Resistivity of Materials
6.8 Assessment of Conduction Paths
6.9 Measuring Spark Discharge Energies
6.10 Measuring Ignition Energies
Chapter 7 Control of Static Electricity and Its Hazards by Process Modification and Grounding
7.1 General
7.2 Control of Ignitible Mixtures in Equipment
7.3 Control of Generation of Static Electric Charge
7.4 Charge Dissipation
Chapter 8 Control of Static Electricity and Its Hazards by Static Eliminators and Personnel Factors
8.1 Charge Neutralization by Ionization of Air
8.2 Control of Static Electric Charge on Personnel
8.3 Maintenance and Testing
8.4 Discomfort and Injury
Chapter 9 Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Their Vapors
9.1 General
9.2 Combustion Characteristics of Liquids, Vapors, and Mists
9.3 Generation and Dissipation of Static Electric Charge in Liquids
Chapter 10 Fluid Flow in Piping, Hose, Tubing, and Filters
10.1 Metal Piping Systems
10.2 Nonconductive Pipe and Lined Pipe
10.3 Flexible Hose and Tubing
10.4 Fill Pipes
10.5 Filtration
10.6 Suspended Material
10.7 Miscellaneous Line Restrictions
Chapter 11 Static Electricity Hazards of Liquids in Containers and Intermediate Bulk Containers
11.1 Portable Tanks, Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs), and Non-Bulk Containers
11.2 Cleaning of Containers
Chapter 12 Static Electricity Hazards of Liquids in Bulk Storage Tanks and in Tank Vehicles
12.1 Storage Tanks
12.2 Loading of Tank Vehicles
12.3 Vacuum Trucks
12.4 Railroad Tank Cars
12.5 Marine Vessel and Barge Cargo Tanks
Chapter 13 Static Electricity Hazards in Process Vessels
13.1 General
13.2 Procedures for Transfer to Tanks
13.3 Agitation
13.4 Process Vessels with Nonconductive Linings
13.5 Adding Solids
13.6 Mixing Solids
13.7 Nonconductive Process Vessels
Chapter 14 Static Electricity Hazards of Operations in Process Vessels and Tanks
14.1 General
14.2 Gauging and Sampling
14.3 Cleaning Vessels and Tanks
14.4 Vacuum Cleaning
14.5 Clean Gas Flows
14.6 Ancillary Operations (Reserved)
Chapter 15 Powders and Dusts
15.1 General
15.2 Combustibility of Dust Clouds
15.3 Mechanisms of Static Electric Charging
15.4 Retention of Static Electric Charge
15.5 Discharges in Powder Operations
15.6 Discharges During Filling Operations
15.7 Pneumatic Transport Systems
15.8 Flexible Hose
15.9 Flexible Boots and Socks
15.10 Fabric Filters
15.11 Hybrid Mixtures
15.12 Manual Addition of Powders to Flammable Liquids
15.13 Bulk Storage
Chapter 16 Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) for Powders
16.1 General
16.2 Types of Discharge
16.3 Granular Material
16.4 Conductive Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs)
16.5 Nonconductive Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs)
16.6 Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBCs)
Chapter 17 Web and Sheet Processes
17.1 General
17.2 Substrates
17.3 Inks and Coatings
17.4 Processes
17.5 Control of Static Electricity in Web Processes
Chapter 18 Miscellaneous Applications
18.1 Spray Application Processes
18.2 Belts and Conveyors
18.3 Explosives
18.4 Cathode Ray Tube Video Display Terminals
18.5 Plastic Sheets and Wraps
Annex A Explanatory Material
Annex B Physical Characteristics of Materials
Annex C Additional Information on Flash Point
Annex D Additional Information on Vapor Pressure
Annex E Additional Information on Charge Relaxation
Annex F Additional Information on Conductivity
Annex G Recommended Means for Providing Bonding and Grounding
Annex H Glossary of Terms
Annex I Bibliography
Annex J Informational References