NFPA 654: Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions from the Manufacturing, Processing

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NFPA®'s principal document on dust hazards, NFPA 654 increases its equivalency options and introduces safety improvements based on lessons learned.

Tragic experiences in the United Stated attest to fire and explosion hazards involving combustible particulate solids or hybrid mixtures. NFPA 654: Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions from the Manufacturing, Processing, and Handling of Combustible Particulate Solids is referenced by OSHA's Combustible Dust National Emphasis Program (NEP) for the purposes of identifying dust hazards and defining mitigation strategies that protect life and property.

Identify dust hazards and establish control measures with the latest edition.

The Standard provides fundamental, industry-recognized safety practices for facility and systems design, process equipment protection, fugitive dust control and housekeeping, ignition source identification and control, fire protection, training and procedures, inspection and maintenance. The Standard's Annexes include guidance on the application of area electrical classification for various dust accumulation levels.

The 2013 edition of NFPA 654 adds new equivalency options.

This important edition features four new equivalent methods for determining whether a dust fire or explosion hazardous condition exists in a facility. These methods include the layer depth criterion that exists in the current edition, as well as a method based on mass accumulation.

Other changes for 2013 improve housekeeping procedures and add safety management system elements:

  • New cleaning frequency based on the nature of the dust layer or dust mass
  • Established hierarchy for cleaning methods; vacuuming, sweeping or water wash, then, if necessary, blowing with compressed air under controlled conditions
  • Strengthened safety management system elements involving hazard analysis, management of change, training, emergency procedures, incident investigations, and contractor/subcontractor safety

NFPA 654 is essential for owner/operators of facilities that store, handle, or use combustible particulate solids; along with insurance professionals, design engineers, fire protection engineers, equipment manufacturers and vendors, enforcers, and testing laboratories or research facilities. (Softbound, 58 pp., 2013)

NFPA® 654 Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions from the Manufacturing, Processing, and Handling of Combustible Particulate Solids 2013 Edition

Chapter 1 Administration
1.1 Scope
1.2 Purpose
1.3 Goal
1.4 Application
1.5 Retroactivity
1.6 Equivalency
Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
2.1 General
2.2 NFPA Publications
2.3 Other Publications
2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections
Chapter 3 Definitions
3.1 General
3.2 NFPA Official Definitions
3.3 General Definitions
Chapter 4 General Requirements
4.1 Process and Facility Design
4.2 Process Hazard Analysis
4.3 Management of Change
4.4 Incident Investigation
4.5 Pneumatic Conveying, Dust Collection, and Centralized Vacuum Cleaning System Design
4.6 Objectives
4.7 Compliance Options
Chapter 5 Performance-Based Design Option
5.1 General Requirements
5.2 Performance Criteria
5.3 Design Scenarios
5.4 Evaluation of Proposed Design
Chapter 6 Facility and Systems Design
6.1 General
6.2 Segregation, Separation, or Detachment of Combustible Dust Handling and Processing Areas
6.3 Building Construction
6.4 Deflagration Venting
6.5 Electrical Equipment
Chapter 7 Process Equipment
7.1 General.
7.2 Bulk Storage Enclosures
7.3 Material Transfer System
7.4 Specific Requirements for Systems that Convey Metal Particulates
7.5 Systems That Convey Hybrid Mixtures
7.6 Duct Systems
7.7 Sight Glasses
7.8 Pressure Protection Systems
7.9 Material Feeding Devices
7.10 Bucket Elevators
7.11 Enclosed Conveyors
7.12 Air-Moving Devices (Fans and Blowers)
7.13 Air-Material Separators (Air Separation Devices)
7.14 Abort Gates/Abort Dampers
7.15 Size Reduction
7.16 Particle Size Separation
7.17 Mixers and Blenders
7.18 Dryers
Chapter 8 Fugitive Dust Control and Housekeeping
8.1 Fugitive Dust Control
8.2 Housekeeping
Chapter 9 Ignition Sources
9.1 Heat from Mechanical Sparks and Friction
9.2 Electrical Equipment
9.3 Static Electricity
9.4 Cartridge-Actuated Tools
9.5 Open Flames and Sparks
9.6 Process and Comfort Heating Systems
9.7 Hot Surfaces
9.8 Industrial Trucks
Chapter 10 Fire Protection
10.1 General
10.2 System Requirements
10.3 Fire Extinguishers
10.4 Hose, Standpipes, and Hydrants
10.5 Automatic Sprinklers
10.6 Spark/Ember Detection and Extinguishing Systems
10.7 Special Fire Protection Systems
10.8 Alarm Service
10.9 Impairments of Fire Protection and Explosion Prevention Systems
Chapter 11 Training and Procedures
11.1 Employee Training
11.2 Plan
11.3 Initial and Refresher Training
11.4 Certification
11.5 Contractors and Subcontractors
Chapter 12 Inspection and Maintenance
12.1 General Requirements
12.2 Specific Requirements
Annex A Explanatory Material
Annex B Explosion Protection
Annex C Informational Primer on Spark Detection and Extinguishing Systems
Annex D Dust Layer Characterization and Precautions
Annex E Deflagration Propagation Isolation Methods
Annex F Use of Water as Extinguishing Agent for Combustible Particulate Solids
Annex G Informational References