NFPA 59A: Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

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Identify risks and help ensure safety around Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plants and export facilities with NFPA 59A.

Adopted by D.O.T. and referenced by other agencies including the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, NFPA 59A: Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) governs the site selection, design, construction, and fire protection of LNG plants. It's required throughout the United States and internationally trusted as the final word on safety for these specialized facilities. Along with prescriptive requirements, the Standard includes a performance-based option that requires analyzing the risks to persons and property in the area surrounding the proposed LNG plant based on risk mitigation techniques incorporated into the facility design.

Due to the prevalence of LNG in the United States, there is a shift away from predominantly importing LNG towards becoming a large exporter. As a result, numerous new export facilities under development in the U.S. will rely on NFPA 59A for guidance on LNG production, storage, and handling.

In this edition:

  • Changes improve the fire safe design of outer concrete containers, to avoid explosive spalling during a fire event.
  • Revised inspection requirements after repairs, after detection of leaks, and post seismic events provide contractors, facility owners, managers, and AHJs with greater confidence in the system's continued safety and integrity.

The latest edition of NFPA 59A is essential for architects, owners, designers, engineers, fire safety officers, AHJs, and anyone responsible for LNG plant safety. (Softbound, 75 pp., 2016)

NFPA®59A Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), 2016 Edition

Chapter 1 Administration
1.1 Scope.
1.2 Purpose.
1.3 Equivalency.
1.4 Retroactivity.
1.5 SI Units.
1.6 Pressure Measurement.
1.7 Referenced Standards.
Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
2.1 General.
2.2 NFPA Publications.
2.3 Other Publications.
2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections.
Chapter 3 Definitions
3.1 General.
3.2 NFPA Official Definitions.
3.3 General Definitions.
Chapter 4 General Requirements
4.1 Scope.
4.2 Corrosion Control Overview.
4.3 Control Center.
4.4 Sources of Power.
4.5 Records.
4.6 Noncombustible Material.
4.7 Ignition Source Control.
Chapter 5 Plant Siting and Layout
5.1 Scope.
5.2 Plant Site Provisions.
5.3 Site Provisions for Spill and Leak Control.
5.4 Buildings and Structures.
5.5 Designer and Fabricator Competence.
5.6 Soil Protection for Cryogenic Equipment.
5.7 Falling Ice and Snow.
5.8 Concrete Design and Materials.
5.9 Portable LNG Facility.
Chapter 6 Process Equipment
6.1 Scope.
6.2 Installation of Process Equipment.
6.3 Pumps and Compressors.
6.4 Flammable Refrigerant and Flammable Liquid Storage.
6.5 Process Equipment.
Chapter 7 Stationary LNG Storage
7.1 Scope.
7.2 General.
7.3 Design Considerations.
7.4 Tank Systems.
7.5 ASME Containers Designed for Operation at More Than 15 psi (103 kPa).
Chapter 8 Vaporization Facilities
8.1 Scope.
8.2 Classification of Vaporizers.
8.3 Design and Materials of Construction.
8.4 Vaporizer Piping, Intermediate Fluid Piping, and Storage Valves.
8.5 Relief Devices on Vaporizers.
8.6 Combustion Air Supply.
8.7 Products of Combustion.
Chapter 9 Piping Systems and Components
9.1 Scope.
9.2 General.
9.3 Materials of Construction.
9.4 Installation.
9.5 Pipe Supports.
9.6 Piping Identification.
9.7 Inspection, Examination, and Testing of Piping.
9.8 Purging of Piping Systems.
9.9 Safety and Relief Valves.
9.10 Corrosion Control.
9.11 Cryogenic Pipe-in-Pipe Systems.
Chapter 10 Instrumentation and Electrical Services
10.1 Scope.
10.2 Liquid Level Gauging.
10.3 Pressure Gauging.
10.4 Vacuum Gauging.
10.5 Temperature Indicators.
10.6 Emergency Shutdown.
10.7 Electrical Equipment.
10.8 Electrical Grounding and Bonding.
Chapter 11 Transfer Systems for LNG, Refrigerants, and Other Flammable Fluids
11.1 Scope.
11.2 General Requirements.
11.3 Piping System.
11.4 Pump and Compressor Control.
11.5 Marine Shipping and Receiving.
11.6 Tank Vehicle and Tank Car Loading and Unloading Facilities.
11.7 Pipeline Shipping and Receiving.
11.8 Hoses and Arms.
11.9 Communications and Lighting.
Chapter 12 Fire Protection, Safety, and Security
12.1 Scope.
12.2 General.
12.3 Emergency Shutdown (ESD) Systems.
12.4 Gas, Fire, and Leak Detection.
12.5 Fire Protection Water Systems.
12.6 Fire Extinguishing and Other Fire Control Equipment.
12.7 Maintenance of Fire Protection Equipment.
12.8 Personnel Safety.
12.9 Security.
Chapter 13 Requirements for Stationary Applications Using ASME Containers
13.1 Scope.
13.2 General Requirements.
13.3 Containers.
13.4 Container Filling.
13.5 Container Foundations and Supports.
13.6 Container Installation.
13.7 Automatic Product Retention Valves.
13.8 LNG Spill Containment.
13.9 Inspection.
13.10 Shop Testing of LNG Containers.
13.11 Shipment of LNG Containers.
13.12 Field Testing of LNG Containers.
13.13 Welding on Containers.
13.14 Piping.
13.15 Container Instrumentation.
13.16 Fire Protection and Safety.
13.17 Gas Detection.
13.18 Operations and Maintenance.
Chapter 14 Operating, Maintenance, and Personnel Training
14.1 Scope.
14.2 General Requirements.
14.3 Manual of Operating Procedures.
14.4 Emergency Procedures.
14.5 Monitoring Operations.
14.6 Transfer of LNG and Flammables.
14.7 Maintenance Manual.
14.8 Maintenance.
14.9 Personnel Training.
14.10 Records.
Chapter 15 Performance (Risk Assessment) Based LNG Plant Siting
15.1 Scope.
15.2 General Requirements.
15.3 Definitions.
15.4 Risk Calculations and Basis of Assessment.
15.5 LNG and Other Hazardous Materials Release Scenarios.
15.6 Release Probabilities and Conditional Probabilities.
15.7 Environmental Conditions and Occurrence Probabilities.
15.8 Hazard and Consequence Assessment.
15.9 Risk Result Presentation.
15.10 Risk Tolerability Criteria.
15.11 Risk Mitigation Approaches.
Annex A Explanatory Material
Annex B Seismic Design of LNG Plants
Annex C Security
Annex D Training
Annex E Informational References