NFPA 31: Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment

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2011 NFPA 31

Prior Years Prior Editions of NFPA 31

The 2011 NFPA 31 now covers all liquid fuels -- not just petroleum-based oils -- that are approved for use in oil-burning appliances, such as boilers, air heaters, and water heaters.

Updated to reflect industry developments, the 2011 NFPA 31: Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment is the new industry benchmark for correct installation of liquid fuel-burning appliances in industrial, commercial, and residential occupancies.

Substantive changes and improvements in the 2011 edition include:

  • Expanded section on acceptable fuels for liquid fuel-burning appliances now includes biodiesel blends, biofuels, and recycled lubrication oil, in addition to No. 2 fuel oil.
  • Specifications for minimum thickness for different diameters of steel pipe vent connectors
  • Major revisions to Chapter 7, Liquid Fuel Tanks, to consolidate requirements for fill and vent openings; conform to leak testing and inspection requirements of NFPA 30; and address removal of fuel oil tanks from service, with a provision to allow keeping the tank on site to allow for future use
  • Major technical and editorial revisions to Chapter 8: Heating Fuel Piping Systems, including consolidation of vent piping requirements into one section; consolidation of piping requirements for cross-connected tanks; consolidation of requirements for special piping arrangements; and specific requirements for proper use of audible tank fill alarms (tank vent whistles)

This widely-used Standard important working tool for anyone involved with the design or installation of liquid fuel-burning appliances and their fuel supply. (Softbound, 58 pp., 2011)

NFPA® 31 Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment 2011 Edition

Chapter 1 Administration
1.1 Scope
1.2 Purpose
1.3 Application (Reserved)
1.4 Retroactivity
1.5 Equivalency
1.6 Units
1.7 Code Adoption Requirements (Reserved)
Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
2.1 General
2.2 NFPA Publications
2.3 Other Publications
2.4 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections
Chapter 3 Definitions
3.1 General
3.2 NFPA Official Definitions
3.3 General Definitions
Chapter 4 Basic Installation and Operation Requirements
4.1 Scope
4.2 Use of Approved Equipment
4.3 Installation of Oil-Burning Appliances and Equipment
4.4 Electrical Services
4.5 Acceptable Liquid Fuels
4.6 Use of Crankcase Oil and Used Oil
4.7 Temporary Heating
Chapter 5 Air for Combustion and Ventilation
5.1 Scope
5.2 Basic Requirements
5.3 Appliances Located in Unconfined Spaces
5.4 Appliances Located in Confined Spaces
5.5 Combustion Air for Commercial and Industrial Installations
5.6 Louvers and Grilles
5.7 Special Conditions
5.8 Specially Engineered Installations
Chapter 6 Venting of Combustion (Flue) Gases
6.1 Scope
6.2 Basic Requirements
6.3 Draft
6.4 Draft Regulators
6.5 Chimney Connectors
6.6 Chimneys
6.7 Special Venting Systems
6.8 Replacement and Upgrading of Chimneys (Reserved)
Chapter 7 Tanks for Liquid Fuels
7.1 Scope
7.2 Basic Design and Construction of Tanks
7.3 Supports and Foundations
7.4 Installation of Underground Tanks
7.5 Installation of Tanks Inside Buildings
7.6 Requirements for Dedicated Tank Rooms and Tank Enclosures
7.7 Auxiliary Tanks
7.8 Installation of Outside Aboveground Tanks
7.9 Tank Heating Systems
7.10 Special Storage Arrangements
7.11 Tank Leakage Testing and Periodic Inspection
7.12 Abandonment and Removal from Service of Tanks and Related Equipment
7.13 Fuel Storage Systems That Are Permanently Taken Out of Service
7.14 Permanent Abandonment of Underground Tanks
Chapter 8 Heating Fuel Piping Systems and Components
8.1 Scope
8.2 Acceptable Piping - Types and Materials
8.3 Acceptable Fittings - Types and Materials
8.4 Piping System Design
8.5 Tank Fill Piping
8.6 Tank Vent Piping
8.7 Fuel Supply Piping and Return Piping
8.8 Auxiliary Tank Piping
8.9 Piping for Cross-Connected Tanks
8.10 Pumps, Valves, Gauges, and Appurtenances
8.11 Testing of Fuel Supply Piping
Chapter 9 Oil Distribution Systems
9.1 Scope
9.2 Centralized Oil Distribution Systems
9.3 Oil Distribution Systems for Roof-Mounted or Ceiling-Suspended Oil-Fired Units
Chapter 10 Installation of Oil Burners and Oil-Burning Appliances
10.1 Scope
10.2 Basic Requirements
10.3 Posting of Instructions
10.4 Replacement of Appliances and Chimneys (Reserved)
10.5 Operating Controls
10.6 Specific Requirements for Installation of Boilers, Furnaces, Floor-Mounted Unit Heaters, and Water Heaters
10.7 Specific Requirements for Attic Furnaces
10.8 Specific Requirements for Duct Furnaces
10.9 Specific Requirements for Floor Furnaces
10.10 Specific Requirements for Furnaces Used with Refrigeration Systems
10.11 Specific Requirements for Industrial Furnaces and Boilers - Stationary Type
10.12 Specific Requirements for Miscellaneous Heaters (Air Heaters, Salamanders, and so forth)
10.13 Specific Requirements for Recessed Wall Furnaces
10.14 Specific Requirements for Floor-Mounted Restaurant-Type Cooking Appliances
10.15 Specific Requirements for Suspended-Type Unit Heaters
10.16 Specific Requirements for Direct-Vent Appliances (Reserved)
10.17 Specific Requirements for Appliances on Roofs
10.18 Installation of Outdoor Appliances
Chapter 11 Installation and Operation of Oil-Burning Stoves, Kerosene-Burning Room Heaters, and Kerosene-Burning Portable Heaters
11.1 Scope
11.2 Basic Requirements
11.3 Additional Requirements for Kerosene-Burning Portable Heaters
Chapter 12 Used Oil-Burning Appliances
12.1 Scope
12.2 Basic Requirements
12.3 Use of Used Oil-Burning Appliances
12.4 Listing Requirements
12.5 Installation Instructions
12.6 Installation Clearances
12.7 Burners for Used Oil-Burning Appliances
12.8 Venting of Combustion (Flue) Gases
12.9 Used Oil Supply Tanks
12.10 Piping, Pumps, and Valves
12.11 Operating Requirements
12.12 Vent Connector and Chimney Inspection
12.13 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulations
Chapter 13 Oil-and-Gas-Burning Appliances
13.1 Scope
13.2 Listing Requirements
13.3 Installation, Operation, and Servicing Instructions
13.4 Clearances from Oil/Gas-Fired Appliance to Combustible Material
13.5 Construction
13.6 Flue Connections
13.7 Piping, Pumps, and Valves
13.8 Performance
13.9 Testing
Annex A Explanatory Material
Annex B Acceptable Tank Installations (Reserved)
Annex C Typical Chimney and Vent Terminations
Annex D Considerations for Combustion Equipment Firing Alternative (Nonpetroleum) Fuels
Annex E Relining Masonry Chimneys
Annex F Informational References

NFPA®'s Redline PDF contains both the current NFPA document and a Redline version of the document which shows changes from the previous edition marked in color. With the Redline you can quickly spot changed sections and tell specifically what has been changed from the previous edition, saving time and confusion.

  • Changed sections are marked with a vertical rule.
  • Deleted material is shown in red strikethrough type.
  • New material appears in blue underscored type.


Sample (NEC® 2014)

411.2411.3 Definition. Low-Voltage Lighting Systems.


(A) General. Lighting Ssystems Ooperating at 30 Volts- volts or  Less. A lighting system consisting less shall consist of an isolating power supply, the low-voltage luminaires, and associated equipment that are all identified for the use. The output circuits of the power supply are shall be rated for not more than 25 amperes and  operate at 30 volts (42.4 volts peak) or lessmaximum under all load conditions.


(B) Class 2. Listed Class 2 lighting equipment shall be rated in conformance with Chapter 9, Table 11(A) or Table 11(B).


411.3411.4 Listing Required. Lighting systems operating at 30 volts or less shall comply with 411.3(A)411.4(A) or 

411.3(B).411.4(B). Class 2 power sources and lighting equipment connected to Class 2 power sources shall be llisted.